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Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jun;8(6):2628-37.

Sp1, a CAAT-binding factor, and the adenovirus major late promoter transcription factor interact with functional regions of the gamma-fibrinogen promoter.

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Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305.


To study the factors which influence the coordinately and developmentally regulated expression of the three adjacent fibrinogen genes, we have defined the functional regions of the gamma-fibrinogen promoter and the proteins which bind to them. Using a series of 5' and internal deletion mutations, we found that sequences between 88 and 43 base pairs (bp) upstream of the gamma-fibrinogen transcription initiation site functioned in cis to direct properly initiated mRNA accumulation in transfected hepatocytes. The efficient function of these sequences was highly distance dependent, since transcriptional activity decreased by 92% when they were moved 32 bp upstream of the TATA box. We demonstrated that two known and one putative transcriptional factors interacted with this 47-bp sequence. The transcription factor Sp1 interacted with sequences between -51 and -46 as demonstrated by protection from DNase I digestion with the purified protein. Directly adjacent to the Sp1 site, between nucleotides -66 and -53, there was a sequence which bound a CAAT-binding factor. Finally, sequences just 5' to the CAAT factor-binding site interacted with the adenovirus major late transcriptional factor as previously demonstrated. Internal deletion mutations which disrupt these interactions diminished the activity of the promoter in vivo. One consequence of the interaction of these proteins is that a bend is placed in the DNA at or near their sites of interaction.

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