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Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Nov;97(46):e12685. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000012685.

Comprehensive preoperative regime of selective gut decontamination in combination with probiotics, and smectite for reducing endotoxemia and cytokine activation during cardiopulmonary bypass: A pilot randomized, controlled trial.

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Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, China.



Both selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and probiotics have been reported to reduce endotoxemia. However, the available results are conflicting and few studies have investigated the combined effect of SDD and probiotics. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive preoperative regimen of SDD in combination with probiotics and smectite on perioperative endotoxemia and cytokine activation in patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a pilot, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.


Patients who underwent elective Aortic Valve Replacement or Mitral Valve Replacement surgery from July 2010 to March 2015 were included. In total, 30 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either the comprehensive preoperative regimen (n = 15) (a combination of preoperative SDD, probiotics, and smectite) or the control group (n = 15) who did not receive this treatment. The levels of endotoxin, IL-6, and procalcitonin were measured at the time before anesthesia induction, immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 24 hours after CPB, and 48 hours after CPB. The primary outcomes were changes in endotoxin, IL-6, and procalcitonin concentrations after CPB.


The mean levels of change in endotoxin levels after CPB in patients receiving the comprehensive preoperative regimen was marginally significantly lower than those in control group (F = 4.0, P = .0552) but was not significantly different for procalcitonin (F = .14, P = .7134). An interaction between group and time for IL-6 was identified (F = 4.35, P = .0231). The increase in IL-6 concentration immediately after CPB in the comprehensive preoperative group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P = .0112). The changes in IL-6 concentration at 24 hours and 48 hours after CPB were not significant between the comprehensive preoperative group and control group.


The present pilot, prospective, randomized, controlled study in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB demonstrated that 3 days of a comprehensive preoperative regime of SDD in combination with probiotics and smectite may reduce the endotoxin and IL-6 levels after CPB compared with the control group.

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