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J Sci Food Agric. 2019 Apr;99(6):2786-2792. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.9486. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Effect of cryoconcentration process on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple juice.

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Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil.
Graduate Program in Food Science and Technology, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil.



Freeze concentration is an alternative process where bioactive compounds are preserved during the processing of juice concentrates. This study proposed a simple and cheaper cryoconcentration process assisted by centrifugation in apple juice.


The levels of phenolics increased significantly (P < 0.05) with each freeze concentration cycle that was performed. Furthermore, the process resulted in an average increase in the concentration of phenolics of 1.9, 2.9 and 3.8 times for the first, second and third steps of the concentration, respectively. In relation to phenolics, the antioxidant potential, which was evaluated by radical scavenging activity and reduction power, also increased with the cryoconcentration steps. The influence of the phenolics on the in vitro antioxidant activity was confirmed by a significant correlation between the antioxidant assays and total phenolics, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols (r > 0.70).


The increase in antioxidant activity may have been attributed to the increase in the phenolic compounds in the apple juices because of the cryoconcentration process. Therefore, this could be an excellent natural product to supplement and enrich blends, juices, ciders, smoothies, and jams in order to improve the sensorial, nutritional and antioxidant properties. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


HPLC; antioxidants; centrifugation; freeze concentration; polyphenols

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