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J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2018 Sep-Oct;8(5):439-445. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_223_18. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Comparison of Cheiloscopy and Rugoscopy in Karnataka, Kerala, and Manipuri Population.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.


Aims and Objectives:

The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare lip prints and palatal rugae pattern in Kerala, Karnataka, and Manipuri population.

Materials and Methods:

The study involved 180 individuals (60 each from Karnataka, Kerala, and Manipuri population). Lipstick was used to record lip prints, which were visualized by magnifying lens. Palatal rugae were recorded on maxillary casts of all subjects and analyzed following Kapali S et al.' s classification. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 for Windows software was used for analysis.


Among the study population, most frequent lip print pattern was Type 3 and least was Type 1'. When patterns were compared between groups, Type 3 was the most common in Manipuri and Kerala and Type 3 in Karnataka groups. In the entire population, males showed Type 3 and females showed Type 1. On analysis of overall rugae wavy, forward and divergence patterns were predominant. On comparison of gender, males demonstrated greater number of wavy and perpendicular rugae, and females had curved, straight, forward, and backward.


Both cheiloscopy and rugoscopy have the prospective to recognize an individual. Cheiloscopy is more reliable than rugoscopy in making out the group and gender of an individual.


Cheiloscopy; Karnataka; Kerala; forensic identification; rugoscopy

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