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Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 13;9(1):4630. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07019-x.

A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults.

Author information

1
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
2
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
3
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
4
The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Rega Institute, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
6
VIB, Center for Microbiology, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
7
Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
8
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230, Odense, Denmark.
9
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark.
10
Department of Radiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, DK-2400, Denmark.
11
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
12
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
13
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
14
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, DK-2650, Hvidovre, Denmark.
15
Department of Autoimmunology & Biomarkers, Statens Serum Institut, DK-2300, Copenhagen, Denmark.
16
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden.
17
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, 1010, Auckland, New Zealand.
18
Bartholin Institute, Rigshospitalet, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.
19
Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, DK-2000, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
20
Research Unit and Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, the Capital Region of Denmark, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.
21
Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014, Copenhagen, Denmark.
22
Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
23
Clinical-Microbiomics A/S, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.
24
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. ramneek@bioinformatics.dtu.dk.
25
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. trli@food.dtu.dk.
26
The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark. oluf@sund.ku.dk.

Abstract

Adherence to a low-gluten diet has become increasingly common in parts of the general population. However, the effects of reducing gluten-rich food items including wheat, barley and rye cereals in healthy adults are unclear. Here, we undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders with two 8-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). We find that, in comparison with a high-gluten diet, a low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome, reduces fasting and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and leads to improvements in self-reported bloating. These observations suggest that most of the effects of a low-gluten diet in non-coeliac adults may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres.

PMID:
30425247
PMCID:
PMC6234216
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-07019-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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