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Micromachines (Basel). 2018 Jul 21;9(7). pii: E361. doi: 10.3390/mi9070361.

Topic Review: Application of Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Micro/Nano-Machining.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology & Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. zongweixu@tju.edu.cn.
2
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology & Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. hezhongdu@tju.edu.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology & Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. songying@tju.edu.cn.
4
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology & Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. fuxiu@tju.edu.cn.
5
Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology (IISB), Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen, Germany. mathias.rommel@iisb.fraunhofer.de.
6
Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK. xichun.luo@strath.ac.uk.
7
Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS), Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany. alexander.hartmaier@icams.rub.de.
8
Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China. junjie.zhang@hit.edu.cn.
9
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology & Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. fzfang@tju.edu.cn.

Abstract

The defects and subsurface damages induced by crystal growth and micro/nano-machining have a significant impact on the functional performance of machined products. Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, powerful, and non-destructive testing method to characterize these defects and subsurface damages. This paper aims to review the fundamentals and applications of Raman spectroscopy on the characterization of defects and subsurface damages in micro/nano-machining. Firstly, the principle and several critical parameters (such as penetration depth, laser spot size, and so on) involved in the Raman characterization are introduced. Then, the mechanism of Raman spectroscopy for detection of defects and subsurface damages is discussed. The Raman spectroscopy characterization of semiconductor materials' stacking faults, phase transformation, and residual stress in micro/nano-machining is discussed in detail. Identification and characterization of phase transformation and stacking faults for Si and SiC is feasible using the information of new Raman bands. Based on the Raman band position shift and Raman intensity ratio, Raman spectroscopy can be used to quantitatively calculate the residual stress and the thickness of the subsurface damage layer of semiconductor materials. The Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) technique is helpful to dramatically enhance the Raman scattering signal at weak damages and it is considered as a promising research field.

KEYWORDS:

Raman spectroscopy; TERS; micro/nano-machining; phase transformation; residual stress

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