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Ann Intern Med. 2018 Dec 18;169(12):855-865. doi: 10.7326/M18-1206. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Increasing Safe Outpatient Management of Emergency Department Patients With Pulmonary Embolism: A Controlled Pragmatic Trial.

Author information

1
The Permanente Medical Group and Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento, California (D.R.V.).
2
The Permanente Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, and Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, California (D.G.M.).
3
The Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente South San Francisco Medical Center, South San Francisco, California (U.K.C.).
4
Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California (J.H., A.S.R., M.E.R.).
5
The Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center, Sacramento, California (J.S.L.).
6
The Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente San Leandro Medical Center, Sacramento, California (M.V.K.).
7
Scripps Health, San Diego, California (D.H.W.).
8
The Permanente Medical Group and Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, California (D.R.S., C.K.Y.).
9
Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (T.S.P.).
10
The Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California (I.D.M.).
11
The Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento, California (A.R.E.).
12
University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (H.R.I.).
13
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio (R.V.).
14
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (D.M.Y.).
15
The Permanente Medical Group and Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, and Kaiser Permanente San Rafael Medical Center, San Rafael, California (D.W.B.).

Abstract

Background:

Many low-risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department (ED) are eligible for outpatient care but are hospitalized nonetheless. One impediment to home discharge is the difficulty of identifying which patients can safely forgo hospitalization.

Objective:

To evaluate the effect of an integrated electronic clinical decision support system (CDSS) to facilitate risk stratification and decision making at the site of care for patients with acute PE.

Design:

Controlled pragmatic trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03601676).

Setting:

All 21 community EDs of an integrated health care delivery system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California).

Patients:

Adult ED patients with acute PE.

Intervention:

Ten intervention sites selected by convenience received a multidimensional technology and education intervention at month 9 of a 16-month study period (January 2014 to April 2015); the remaining 11 sites served as concurrent controls.

Measurements:

The primary outcome was discharge to home from either the ED or a short-term (<24-hour) outpatient observation unit based in the ED. Adverse outcomes included return visits for PE-related symptoms within 5 days and recurrent venous thromboembolism, major hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality within 30 days. A difference-in-differences approach was used to compare pre-post changes at intervention versus control sites, with adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics.

Results:

Among 881 eligible patients diagnosed with PE at intervention sites and 822 at control sites, adjusted home discharge increased at intervention sites (17.4% pre- to 28.0% postintervention) without a concurrent increase at control sites (15.1% pre- and 14.5% postintervention). The difference-in-differences comparison was 11.3 percentage points (95% CI, 3.0 to 19.5 percentage points; P = 0.007). No increases were seen in 5-day return visits related to PE or in 30-day major adverse outcomes associated with CDSS implementation.

Limitation:

Lack of random allocation.

Conclusion:

Implementation and structured promotion of a CDSS to aid physicians in site-of-care decision making for ED patients with acute PE safely increased outpatient management.

Primary Funding Source:

Garfield Memorial National Research Fund and The Permanente Medical Group Delivery Science and Physician Researcher Programs.

PMID:
30422263
DOI:
10.7326/M18-1206
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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