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Birth Defects Res. 2018 Nov 12. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1380. [Epub ahead of print]

Overview on neural tube defects: From development to physical characteristics.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
2
Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dell Children's Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin, Texas.
3
Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin, Texas.
4
Center for Precision Environmental Health, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Abstract

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common congenital malformations in humans affecting the development of the central nervous system. Although NTD pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated, many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, have been extensively reported. Classically divided in two main sub-groups (open and closed defects) NTDs present extremely variable prognosis mainly depending on the site of the lesion. Herein, we review the literature on the histological and pathological features, epidemiology, prenatal diagnosis, and prognosis, based on the type of defect, with the aim of providing important information based on NTDs classification for clinicians and scientists.

KEYWORDS:

anencephaly; neural tube defects; spina bifida

PMID:
30421543
PMCID:
PMC6511489
[Available on 2020-05-12]
DOI:
10.1002/bdr2.1380

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