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Nutr J. 2018 Nov 12;17(1):105. doi: 10.1186/s12937-018-0410-6.

Maternal fruit and vegetable or vitamin C consumption during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and infant growth up to 6 months: results from the Korean Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.
2
Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, South Korea.
3
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea. nschang@ewha.ac.kr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Based on data obtained from pregnant women who participated in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study in South Korea, we aimed to determine whether maternal intake of fruits and vegetables or vitamin C is associated with fetal and infant growth.

METHODS:

A total of 1138 Korean pregnant women at 12-28 weeks gestation with their infants were recruited as study participants for the MOCEH. Intake of fruits and vegetables or vitamin C during pregnancy was assessed by a 1-day 24-h recall method. Fetal biometry was determined by ultrasonography at late pregnancy. Infant weight and length were measured at birth and 6 months.

RESULTS:

A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates showed that maternal intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with the biparietal diameter of the fetus and infant's weight from birth to 6 months. Also, maternal vitamin C intake was positively associated with the abdominal circumference of the fetus and infant birth length. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables (below the median compared to above the median of ≥519 g/d) and the risk of low growth (<25th percentile) of biparietal diameter (odds ratio (OR): 2.220; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.153-4.274) and birth weight (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.001-2.056). A significant inverse relationship also existed between vitamin C consumption (below vs above the estimated average requirement (EAR) of ≥85 mg/d) and the risk of low growth (<25th percentile) of birth weight (OR: 1.470; 95% CI: 1.011-2.139), weight from birth to 6 months (OR: 1.520; 95% CI: 1.066-2.165), and length at birth (OR: 1.579; 95% CI: 1.104-2.258).

CONCLUSIONS:

An increased intake of fruits and vegetables or vitamin C at mid-pregnancy is associated with increased fetal growth and infant growth up to 6 months of age.

KEYWORDS:

Birth length; Birth weight; Fetal growth; Fruits; Infant growth; Vegetables; Vitamin C

PMID:
30419900
PMCID:
PMC6231254
DOI:
10.1186/s12937-018-0410-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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