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Clin Chim Acta. 2019 Jan;488:165-171. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Exosomes in inflammation and role as biomarkers.

Author information

1
Department DiBEST (Biologia, Ecologia, Scienze della Terra) Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 4C, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy.
2
Department DiBEST (Biologia, Ecologia, Scienze della Terra) Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 4C, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy. Electronic address: cesare.indiveri@unical.it.

Abstract

Exosomes are endosomal-derived nano-vesicles. They are considered vehicles through which donor cells transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to target cells thus influencing their metabolism. Exosomes are involved in inflammatory processes that play a pivotal role in a large number of pathologic states including cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. The association between inflammation and change in nature or expression level of some exosomal cargos is the fundamental step for identifying possible novel biomarkers of inflammatory-based diseases. A novel interesting exosome cargo is the SLC22A5 transport protein whose level in exosomes is regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine INF-γ. The advantage of using exosomes as a biomarker vehicle consists of their ease of collection from body fluids such as urine and saliva as they may represent a non-invasive means for screening human pathology.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Cancer metabolism; Exosomes; Inflammation; SLC; Transporters

PMID:
30419221
DOI:
10.1016/j.cca.2018.11.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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