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Ann Thorac Med. 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):220-225. doi: 10.4103/atm.ATM_36_18.

Poor sleep in concurrent users of alcohol, khat, and tobacco smoking in community-dwelling Ethiopian adults.

Author information

1
Department of Nursing, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University (Mizan Campus), Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia.
3
Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University (Mizan Campus), Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia.
4
Somnogen Canada Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada.
5
The University Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
6
The National Plan for Science and Technology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Polysubstance dependence, stress, and sleep disturbances are inter-related by shared physiological pathways. No study has investigated the relationship between sleep and concurrent use of alcohol and khat.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the concurrent use of alcohol and khat as well as concurrent alcohol, khat, and tobacco smoking on sleep patterns.

METHODS:

A sample of community-dwelling adults (n = 339, age = 25.5 ± 5.7 years, body mass index = 22.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) from Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia, participated in a cross-sectional study. Semi-structured tool for sociodemographics, substance use habit, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. The difference in sleep patterns among substance use groups, i.e., nonusers, alcohol use only, concurrent alcohol and khat use, and concurrent alcohol, khat and tobacco smoking was assessed.

RESULTS:

The poorest sleep quality was found among concurrent users of alcohol, khat, and tobacco smoking (PSQI global score = 8.2 ± 2.4), followed by concurrent users of alcohol and khat (PSQI global score = 7.3 ± 2.9) (F (3.335) = 23.64, P < 0.001). There were significant differences in the PSQI component score of sleep quality χ 2(3) =159.09, P < 0.001, the PSQI component score of sleep latency χ 2(3) = 128.09, P < 0.001, and the PSQI component score of sleep disturbances χ 2(3) = 37.69, P < 0.001 between substance use groups.

CONCLUSION:

Concurrent use of alcohol, khat as well as alcohol, khat, and tobacco smoking was associated with poor sleep. Sleep disturbances in this group need management to avoid the prospective development of psychosocial disturbances in polysubstance users.

KEYWORDS:

Addition; chat; insomnia; polysubstance; smoking; substance abuse

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