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Lancet Neurol. 2019 Jan;18(1):46-55. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30314-4. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Penumbral imaging and functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke treated with endovascular thrombectomy versus medical therapy: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data.

Collaborators (1330)

Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D, van den Berg LA, Lingsma HF, Yoo AJ, Schonewille WJ, Vos JA, Nederkoorn PJ, Wermer MJ, van Walderveen MA, Staals J, Hofmeijer J, van Oostayen JA, Lycklama À Nijeholt GJ, Boiten J, Brouwer PA, Emmer BJ, de Bruijn SF, van Dijk LC, Kappelle J, Lo RH, van Dijk EJ, de Vries J, de Kort PLM, van Rooij WJJ, van den Berg JSP, van Hasselt BAAM, Aerden LAM, Dallinga RJ, Visser MC, Bot JCJ, Vroomen PC, Eshghi O, Schreuder THCML, Heijboer RJJ, Keizer K, Tielbeek AV, den Hertog HM, Gerrits DG, van den Berg-Vos RM, Karas GB, Steyerberg EW, Flach Z, Marquering HA, Sprengers MES, Jenniskens SFM, Beenen LFM, van den Berg R, Koudstaal PJ, van Zwam WH, Roos YBWEM, van der Lugt A, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Majoie CBLM, Dippel DWJ, Brown MM, Liebig T, Stijnen T, Andersson T, Mattle H, Wahlgren N, van der Heijden E, Ghannouti N, Fleitour N, Hooijenga I, Puppels C, Pellikaan W, Geerling A, Lindl-Velema A, van Vemde G, de Ridder A, Greebe P, de Bont-Stikkelbroeck J, de Meris J, Janssen K, Struijk W, Licher S, Boodt N, Ros A, Venema E, Slokkers I, Ganpat RJ, Mulder M, Saiedie N, Heshmatollah A, Schipperen S, Vinken S, van Boxtel T, Koets J, Boers M, Santos E, Borst J, Jansen I, Kappelhof M, Lucas M, Geuskens R, Barros RS, Dobbe R, Csizmadia M, Hill MD, Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Eesa M, Ryckborst KJ, Wright MR, Kamal NR, Andersen L, Randhawa PA, Stewart T, Patil S, Minhas P, Almekhlafi M, Mishra S, Clement F, Sajobi T, Shuaib A, Montanera WJ, Roy D, Silver FL, Jovin TG, Frei DF, Sapkota B, Rempel JL, Thornton J, Williams D, Tampieri D, Poppe AY, Dowlatshahi D, Wong JH, Mitha AP, Subramaniam S, Hull G, Lowerison MW, Sajobi T, Salluzzi M, Wright MR, Maxwell M, Lacusta S, Drupals E, Armitage K, Barber PA, Smith EE, Morrish WF, Coutts SB, Derdeyn C, Demaerschalk B, Yavagal D, Martin R, Brant R, Yu Y, Willinsky RA, Montanera WJ, Weill A, Kenney C, Aram H, Stewart T, Stys PK, Watson TW, Klein G, Pearson D, Couillard P, Trivedi A, Singh D, Klourfeld E, Imoukhuede O, Nikneshan D, Blayney S, Reddy R, Choi P, Horton M, Musuka T, Dubuc V, Field TS, Desai J, Adatia S, Alseraya A, Nambiar V, van Dijk R, Wong JH, Mitha AP, Morrish WF, Eesa M, Newcommon NJ, Shuaib A, Schwindt B, Butcher KS, Jeerakathil T, Buck B, Khan K, Naik SS, Emery DJ, Owen RJ, Kotylak TB, Ashforth RA, Yeo TA, McNally D, Siddiqui M, Saqqur M, Hussain D, Kalashyan H, Manosalva A, Kate M, Gioia L, Hasan S, Mohammad A, Muratoglu M, Williams D, Thornton J, Cullen A, Brennan P, O'Hare A, Looby S, Hyland D, Duff S, McCusker M, Hallinan B, Lee S, McCormack J, Moore A, O'Connor M, Donegan C, Brewer L, Martin A, Murphy S, O'Rourke K, Smyth S, Kelly P, Lynch T, Daly T, O'Brien P, O'Driscoll A, Martin M, Daly T, Collins R, Coughlan T, McCabe D, Murphy S, O'Neill D, Mulroy M, Lynch O, Walsh T, O'Donnell M, Galvin T, Harbison J, McElwaine P, Mulpeter K, McLoughlin C, Reardon M, Harkin E, Dolan E, Watts M, Cunningham N, Fallon C, Gallagher S, Cotter P, Crowe M, Doyle R, Noone I, Lapierre M, Coté VA, Lanthier S, Odier C, Durocher A, Raymond J, Weill A, Daneault N, Deschaintre Y, Jankowitz B, Baxendell L, Massaro L, Jackson-Graves C, Decesare S, Porter P, Armbruster K, Adams A, Billigan J, Oakley J, Ducruet A, Jadhav A, Giurgiutiu DV, Aghaebrahim A, Reddy V, Hammer M, Starr M, Totoraitis V, Wechsler L, Streib S, Rangaraju S, Campbell D, Rocha M, Gulati D, Silver FL, Krings T, Kalman L, Cayley A, Williams J, Stewart T, Wiegner R, Casaubon LK, Jaigobin C, Del Campo JM, Elamin E, Schaafsma JD, Willinsky RA, Agid R, Farb R, Ter Brugge K, Sapkoda BL, Baxter BW, Barton K, Knox A, Porter A, Sirelkhatim A, Devlin T, Dellinger C, Pitiyanuvath N, Patterson J, Nichols J, Quarfordt S, Calvert J, Hawk H, Fanale C, Frei DF, Bitner A, Novak A, Huddle D, Bellon R, Loy D, Wagner J, Chang I, Lampe E, Spencer B, Pratt R, Bartt R, Shine S, Dooley G, Nguyen T, Whaley M, McCarthy K, Teitelbaum J, Tampieri D, Poon W, Campbell N, Cortes M, Dowlatshahi D, Lum C, Shamloul R, Robert S, Stotts G, Shamy M, Steffenhagen N, Blacquiere D, Hogan M, AlHazzaa M, Basir G, Lesiuk H, Iancu D, Santos M, Choe H, Weisman DC, Jonczak K, Blue-Schaller A, Shah Q, MacKenzie L, Klein B, Kulandaivel K, Kozak O, Gzesh DJ, Harris LJ, Khoury JS, Mandzia J, Pelz D, Crann S, Fleming L, Hesser K, Beauchamp B, Amato-Marzialli B, Boulton M, Lopez-Ojeda P, Sharma M, Lownie S, Chan R, Swartz R, Howard P, Golob D, Gladstone D, Boyle K, Boulos M, Hopyan J, Yang V, Da Costa L, Holmstedt CA, Turk AS, Navarro R, Jauch E, Ozark S, Turner R, Phillips S, Shankar J, Jarrett J, Gubitz G, Maloney W, Vandorpe R, Schmidt M, Heidenreich J, Hunter G, Kelly M, Whelan R, Peeling L, Burns PA, Hunter A, Wiggam I, Kerr E, Watt M, Fulton A, Gordon P, Rennie I, Flynn P, Smyth G, O'Leary S, Gentile N, Linares G, McNelis P, Erkmen K, Katz P, Azizi A, Weaver M, Jungreis C, Faro S, Shah P, Reimer H, Kalugdan V, Saposnik G, Bharatha A, Li Y, Kostyrko P, Santos M, Marotta T, Montanera W, Sarma D, Selchen D, Spears J, Heo JH, Jeong K, Kim DJ, Kim BM, Kim YD, Song D, Lee KJ, Yoo J, Bang OY, Rho S, Lee J, Jeon P, Kim KH, Cha J, Kim SJ, Ryoo S, Lee MJ, Sohn SI, Kim CH, Ryu HG, Hong JH, Chang HW, Lee CY, Rha J, Davis SM, Donnan GA, Campbell BC, Mitchell PJ, Churilov L, Yan B, Dowling R, Yassi N, Oxley TJ, Wu TY, Silver G, McDonald A, McCoy R, Kleinig TJ, Scroop R, Dewey HM, Simpson M, Brooks M, Coulton B, Krause M, Harrington TJ, Steinfort B, Faulder K, Priglinger M, Day S, Phan T, Chong W, Holt M, Chandra RV, Ma H, Young D, Wong K, Wijeratne T, Tu H, Mackay E, Celestino S, Bladin CF, Loh PS, Gilligan A, Ross Z, Coote S, Frost T, Parsons MW, Miteff F, Levi CR, Ang T, Spratt N, Kaauwai L, Badve M, Rice H, de Villiers L, Barber PA, McGuinness B, Hope A, Moriarty M, Bennett P, Wong A, Coulthard A, Lee A, Jannes J, Field D, Sharma G, Salinas S, Cowley E, Snow B, Kolbe J, Stark R, King J, Macdonnell R, Attia J, D'Este C, Saver JL, Goyal M, Diener HC, Levy EI, Bonafé A, Mendes Pereira V, Jahan R, Albers GW, Cognard C, Cohen DJ, Hacke W, Jansen O, Jovin TG, Mattle HP, Nogueira RG, Siddiqui AH, Yavagal DR, von Kummer R, Smith W, Turjman F, Hamilton S, Chiacchierini R, Amar A, Sanossian N, Loh Y, Devlin T, Baxter B, Hawk H, Sapkota B, Quarfordt S, Sirelkhatim A, Dellinger C, Barton K, Reddy VK, Ducruet A, Jadhav A, Horev A, Giurgiutiu DV, Totoraitis V, Hammer M, Jankowitz B, Wechsler L, Rocha M, Gulati D, Campbell D, Star M, Baxendell L, Oakley J, Siddiqui A, Hopkins LN, Snyder K, Sawyer R, Hall S, Costalat V, Riquelme C, Machi P, Omer E, Arquizan C, Mourand I, Charif M, Ayrignac X, Menjot de Champfleur N, Leboucq N, Gascou G, Moynier M, du Mesnil de Rochemont R, Singer O, Berkefeld J, Foerch C, Lorenz M, Pfeilschifer W, Hattingen E, Wagner M, You SJ, Lescher S, Braun H, Dehkharghani S, Belagaje SR, Anderson A, Lima A, Obideen M, Haussen D, Dharia R, Frankel M, Patel V, Owada K, Saad A, Amerson L, Horn C, Doppelheuer S, Schindler K, Lopes DK, Chen M, Moftakhar R, Anton C, Smreczak M, Carpenter JS, Boo S, Rai A, Roberts T, Tarabishy A, Gutmann L, Brooks C, Brick J, Domico J, Reimann G, Hinrichs K, Becker M, Heiss E, Selle C, Witteler A, Al-Boutros S, Danch MJ, Ranft A, Rohde S, Burg K, Weimar C, Zegarac V, Hartmann C, Schlamann M, Göricke S, Ringlestein A, Wanke I, Mönninghoff C, Dietzold M, Budzik R, Davis T, Eubank G, Hicks WJ, Pema P, Vora N, Mejilla J, Taylor M, Clark W, Rontal A, Fields J, Peterson B, Nesbit G, Lutsep H, Bozorgchami H, Priest R, Ologuntoye O, Barnwell S, Dogan A, Herrick K, Takahasi C, Beadell N, Brown B, Jamieson S, Hussain MS, Russman A, Hui F, Wisco D, Uchino K, Khawaja Z, Katzan I, Toth G, Cheng-Ching E, Bain M, Man S, Farrag A, George P, John S, Shankar L, Drofa A, Dahlgren R, Bauer A, Itreat A, Taqui A, Cerejo R, Richmond A, Ringleb P, Bendszus M, Möhlenbruch M, Reiff T, Amiri H, Purrucker J, Herweh C, Pham M, Menn O, Ludwig I, Acosta I, Villar C, Morgan W, Sombutmai C, Hellinger F, Allen E, Bellew M, Gandhi R, Bonwit E, Aly J, Ecker RD, Seder D, Morris J, Skaletsky M, Belden J, Baker C, Connolly LS, Papanagiotou P, Roth C, Kastrup A, Politi M, Brunner F, Alexandrou M, Merdivan H, Ramsey C, Given Ii C, Renfrow S, Deshmukh V, Sasadeusz K, Vincent F, Thiesing JT, Putnam J, Bhatt A, Kansara A, Caceves D, Lowenkopf T, Yanase L, Zurasky J, Dancer S, Freeman B, Scheibe-Mirek T, Robison J, Rontal A, Roll J, Clark D, Rodriguez M, Fitzsimmons BF, Zaidat O, Lynch JR, Lazzaro M, Larson T, Padmore L, Das E, Farrow-Schmidt A, Hassan A, Tekle W, Cate C, Jansen O, Cnyrim C, Wodarg F, Wiese C, Binder A, Riedel C, Rohr A, Lang N, Laufs H, Krieter S, Remonda L, Diepers M, Añon J, Nedeltchev K, Kahles T, Biethahn S, Lindner M, Chang V, Gächter C, Esperon C, Guglielmetti M, Arenillas Lara JF, Martínez Galdámez M, Calleja Sanz AI, Cortijo Garcia E, Garcia Bermejo P, Perez S, Mulero Carrillo P, Crespo Vallejo E, Ruiz Piñero M, Lopez Mesonero L, Reyes Muñoz FJ, Brekenfeld C, Buhk JH, Krützelmann A, Thomalla G, Cheng B, Beck C, Hoppe J, Goebell E, Holst B, Grzyska U, Wortmann G, Starkman S, Duckwiler G, Jahan R, Rao N, Sheth S, Ng K, Noorian A, Szeder V, Nour M, McManus M, Huang J, Tarpley J, Tateshima S, Gonzalez N, Ali L, Liebeskind D, Hinman J, Calderon-Arnulphi M, Liang C, Guzy J, Koch S, DeSousa K, Gordon-Perue G, Haussen D, Elhammady M, Peterson E, Pandey V, Dharmadhikari S, Khandelwal P, Malik A, Pafford R, Gonzalez P, Ramdas K, Andersen G, Damgaard D, Von Weitzel-Mudersbach P, Simonsen C, Ruiz de Morales Ayudarte N, Poulsen M, Sørensen L, Karabegovich S, Hjørringgaard M, Hjort N, Harbo T, Sørensen K, Deshaies E, Padalino D, Swarnkar A, Latorre JG, Elnour E, El-Zammar Z, Villwock M, Farid H, Balgude A, Cross L, Hansen K, Holtmannspötter M, Kondziella D, Hoejgaard J, Taudorf S, Soendergaard H, Wagner A, Cronquist M, Stavngaard T, Cortsen M, Krarup LH, Hyldal T, Haring HP, Guggenberger S, Hamberger M, Trenkler J, Sonnberger M, Nussbaumer K, Dominger C, Bach E, Jagadeesan BD, Taylor R, Kim J, Shea K, Tummala R, Zacharatos H, Sandhu D, Ezzeddine M, Grande A, Hildebrandt D, Miller K, Scherber J, Hendrickson A, Jumaa M, Zaidi S, Hendrickson T, Snyder V, Killer-Oberpfalzer M, Mutzenbach J, Weymayr F, Broussalis E, Stadler K, Jedlitschka A, Malek A, Mueller-Kronast N, Beck P, Martin C, Summers D, Day J, Bettinger I, Holloway W, Olds K, Arkin S, Akhtar N, Boutwell C, Crandall S, Schwartzman M, Weinstein C, Brion B, Prothmann S, Kleine J, Kreiser K, Boeckh-Behrens T, Poppert H, Wunderlich S, Koch ML, Biberacher V, Huberle A, Gora-Stahlberg G, Knier B, Meindl T, Utpadel-Fischler D, Zech M, Kowarik M, Seifert C, Schwaiger B, Puri A, Hou S, Wakhloo A, Moonis M, Henninger N, Goddeau R, Massari F, Minaeian A, Lozano JD, Ramzan M, Stout C, Patel A, Tunguturi A, Onteddu S, Carandang R, Howk M, Ribó M, Sanjuan E, Rubiera M, Pagola J, Flores A, Muchada M, Meler P, Huerga E, Gelabert S, Coscojuela P, Tomasello A, Rodriguez D, Santamarina E, Maisterra O, Boned S, Seró L, Rovira A, Molina CA, Millán M, Muñoz L, Pérez de la Ossa N, Gomis M, Dorado L, López-Cancio E, Palomeras E, Munuera J, García Bermejo P, Remollo S, Castaño C, García-Sort R, Cuadras P, Puyalto P, Hernández-Pérez M, Jiménez M, Martínez-Piñeiro A, Lucente G, Dávalos A, Chamorro A, Urra X, Obach V, Cervera A, Amaro S, Llull L, Codas J, Balasa M, Navarro J, Ariño H, Aceituno A, Rudilosso S, Renu A, Macho JM, San Roman L, Blasco J, López A, Macías N, Cardona P, Quesada H, Rubio F, Cano L, Lara B, de Miquel MA, Aja L, Serena J, Cobo E, Albers GW, Lees KR, Arenillas J, Roberts R, Minhas P, Al-Ajlan F, Salluzzi M, Zimmel L, Patel S, Eesa M, Martí-Fàbregas J, Jankowitz B, Serena J, Salvat-Plana M, López-Cancio E, Bracard S, Ducrocq X, Anxionnat R, Baillot PA, Barbier C, Derelle AL, Lacour JC, Richard S, Samson Y, Sourour N, Baronnet-Chauvet F, Clarencon F, Crozier S, Deltour S, Di Maria F, Le Bouc R, Leger A, Mutlu G, Rosso C, Szatmary Z, Yger M, Zavanone C, Bakchine S, Pierot L, Caucheteux N, Estrade L, Kadziolka K, Leautaud A, Renkes C, Serre I, Desal H, Guillon B, Boutoleau-Bretonniere C, Daumas-Duport B, De Gaalon S, Derkinderen P, Evain S, Herisson F, Laplaud DA, Lebouvier T, Lintia-Gaultier A, Pouclet-Courtemanche H, Rouaud T, Rouaud Jaffrenou V, Schunck A, Sevin-Allouet M, Toulgoat F, Wiertlewski S, Gauvrit JY, Ronziere T, Cahagne V, Ferre JC, Pinel JF, Raoult H, Mas JL, Meder JF, Al Najjar-Carpentier AA, Birchenall J, Bodiguel E, Calvet D, Domigo V, Godon-Hardy S, Guiraud V, Lamy C, Majhadi L, Morin L, Naggara O, Trystram D, Turc G, Berge J, Sibon I, Menegon P, Barreau X, Rouanet F, Debruxelles S, Kazadi A, Renou P, Fleury O, Pasco-Papon A, Dubas F, Caroff J, Godard Ducceschi S, Hamon MA, Lecluse A, Marc G, Giroud M, Ricolfi F, Bejot Y, Chavent A, Gentil A, Kazemi A, Osseby GV, Voguet C, Mahagne MH, Sedat J, Chau Y, Suissa L, Lachaud S, Houdart E, Stapf C, Buffon Porcher F, Chabriat H, Guedin P, Herve D, Jouvent E, Mawet J, Saint-Maurice JP, Schneble HM, Turjman F, Nighoghossian N, Berhoune NN, Bouhour F, Cho TH, Derex L, Felix S, Gervais-Bernard H, Gory B, Manera L, Mechtouff L, Ritzenthaler T, Riva R, Salaris Silvio F, Tilikete C, Blanc R, Obadia M, Bartolini MB, Gueguen A, Piotin M, Pistocchi S, Redjem H, Drouineau J, Neau JP, Godeneche G, Lamy M, Marsac E, Velasco S, Clavelou P, Chabert E, Bourgois N, Cornut-Chauvinc C, Ferrier A, Gabrillargues J, Jean B, Marques AR, Vitello N, Detante O, Barbieux M, Boubagra K, Favre Wiki I, Garambois K, Tahon F, Ashok V, Voguet C, Coskun O, Guedin P, Rodesch G, Lapergue B, Bourdain F, Evrard S, Graveleau P, Decroix JP, Wang A, Sellal F, Ahle G, Carelli G, Dugay MH, Gaultier C, Lebedinsky AP, Lita L, Musacchio RM, Renglewicz-Destuynder C, Tournade A, Vuillemet F, Montoro FM, Mounayer C, Faugeras F, Gimenez L, Labach C, Lautrette G, Denier C, Saliou G, Chassin O, Dussaule C, Melki E, Ozanne A, Puccinelli F, Sachet M, Sarov M, Bonneville JF, Moulin T, Biondi A, De Bustos Medeiros E, Vuillier F, Courtheoux P, Viader F, Apoil-Brissard M, Bataille M, Bonnet AL, Cogez J, Kazemi A, Touze E, Leclerc X, Leys D, Aggour M, Aguettaz P, Bodenant M, Cordonnier C, Deplanque D, Girot M, Henon H, Kalsoum E, Lucas C, Pruvo JP, Zuniga P, Bonafé A, Arquizan C, Costalat V, Machi P, Mourand I, Riquelme C, Bounolleau P, Arteaga C, Faivre A, Bintner M, Tournebize P, Charlin C, Darcel F, Gauthier-Lasalarie P, Jeremenko M, Mouton S, Zerlauth JB, Lamy C, Hervé D, Hassan H, Gaston A, Barral FG, Garnier P, Beaujeux R, Wolff V, Herbreteau D, Debiais S, Murray A, Ford G, Muir KW, White P, Brown MM, Clifton A, Freeman J, Ford I, Markus H, Wardlaw J, Lees KR, Molyneux A, Robinson T, Lewis S, Norrie J, Robertson F, Perry R, Dixit A, Cloud G, Clifton A, Madigan J, Roffe C, Nayak S, Lobotesis K, Smith C, Herwadkar A, Kandasamy N, Goddard T, Bamford J, Subramanian G, Lenthall R, Littleton E, Lamin S, Storey K, Ghatala R, Banaras A, Aeron-Thomas J, Hazel B, Maguire H, Veraque E, Harrison L, Keshvara R, Cunningham J.

Erratum in

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

CT perfusion (CTP) and diffusion or perfusion MRI might assist patient selection for endovascular thrombectomy. We aimed to establish whether imaging assessments of irreversibly injured ischaemic core and potentially salvageable penumbra volumes were associated with functional outcome and whether they interacted with the treatment effect of endovascular thrombectomy on functional outcome.

METHODS:

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the HERMES collaboration pooled patient-level data from all randomised controlled trials that compared endovascular thrombectomy (predominantly using stent retrievers) with standard medical therapy in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke, published in PubMed from Jan 1, 2010, to May 31, 2017. The primary endpoint was functional outcome, assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days after stroke. Ischaemic core was estimated, before treatment with either endovascular thrombectomy or standard medical therapy, by CTP as relative cerebral blood flow less than 30% of normal brain blood flow or by MRI as an apparent diffusion coefficient less than 620 μm2/s. Critically hypoperfused tissue was estimated as the volume of tissue with a CTP time to maximum longer than 6 s. Mismatch volume (ie, the estimated penumbral volume) was calculated as critically hypoperfused tissue volume minus ischaemic core volume. The association of ischaemic core and penumbral volumes with 90-day mRS score was analysed with multivariable logistic regression (functional independence, defined as mRS score 0-2) and ordinal logistic regression (functional improvement by at least one mRS category) in all patients and in a subset of those with more than 50% endovascular reperfusion, adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. The meta-analysis was prospectively designed by the HERMES executive committee, but not registered.

FINDINGS:

We identified seven studies with 1764 patients, all of which were included in the meta-analysis. CTP was available and assessable for 591 (34%) patients and diffusion MRI for 309 (18%) patients. Functional independence was worse in patients who had CTP versus those who had diffusion MRI, after adjustment for ischaemic core volume (odds ratio [OR] 0·47 [95% CI 0·30-0·72], p=0·0007), so the imaging modalities were not pooled. Increasing ischaemic core volume was associated with reduced likelihood of functional independence (CTP OR 0·77 [0·69-0·86] per 10 mL, pinteraction=0·29; diffusion MRI OR 0·87 [0·81-0·94] per 10 mL, pinteraction=0·94). Mismatch volume, examined only in the CTP group because of the small numbers of patients who had perfusion MRI, was not associated with either functional independence or functional improvement. In patients with CTP with more than 50% endovascular reperfusion (n=186), age, ischaemic core volume, and imaging-to-reperfusion time were independently associated with functional improvement. Risk of bias between studies was generally low.

INTERPRETATION:

Estimated ischaemic core volume was independently associated with functional independence and functional improvement but did not modify the treatment benefit of endovascular thrombectomy over standard medical therapy for improved functional outcome. Combining ischaemic core volume with age and expected imaging-to-reperfusion time will improve assessment of prognosis and might inform endovascular thrombectomy treatment decisions.

FUNDING:

Medtronic.

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