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Semin Nephrol. 2018 Nov;38(6):559-569. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2018.08.002.

Cardiovascular Disease in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Kidney Disease.

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Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Levine Children's Hospital, Charlotte, NC.
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:


The lifespan of children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), although improved over the past 2 decades, remains low compared with the general pediatric population. Similar to adults with CKD, cardiovascular disease accounts for a majority of deaths in children with CKD because these patients have a high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular alterations that cause these terminal events begin early in pediatric CKD. Initially, these act to maintain hemodynamic homeostasis. However, as the disease progresses, these modifications are unable to sustain cardiovascular function in the long term, leading to left ventricular failure, depressed cardiorespiratory fitness, and sudden death. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in pediatric patients with CKD, the pathophysiology that stimulates these changes, the cardiac and vascular adaptations that occur in these patients, and management of the cardiovascular risk in these patients.


Heart; cardiovascular; children; chronic kidney disease

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