Send to

Choose Destination
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Nov 8. doi: 10.1089/jop.2018.0073. [Epub ahead of print]

HMGB1 Antagonist, Box A, Reduces TLR4, RAGE, and Inflammatory Cytokines in the Cornea of P. aeruginosa-Infected Mice.

Author information

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine , Detroit, Michigan.
2 Department of Ophthalmology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University , Qingdao, China .



High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) contributes to adverse disease outcome in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. This study tests Box A, an HMGB1 antagonist, in a model of the disease.


C57BL/6 mice (B6) were injected subconjunctivally (1 day before infection) with Box A or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), infected with P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 19660, and injected intraperitoneally with Box A or PBS at 1 and 3 days postinfection (p.i.). Clinical scores, photographs with a slit lamp camera, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and bacterial plate count were used to assess disease outcome. In separate experiments, the therapeutic potential of Box A was tested as described above, but with treatment begun at 6 h p.i.


Box A versus PBS prophylactic treatment significantly reduced clinical scores, MPO activity, bacterial load, and expression of TLR4, RAGE, IL-1β, CXCL2, and TNF-α in the infected cornea. Box A blocked co-localization of HMGB1/TLR4 in infiltrated cells in the stroma at 3 and 5 days p.i., but only at 5 days p.i. for HMGB1/RAGE. Box A versus PBS therapeutic treatment significantly reduced clinical scores, MPO activity, bacterial load, and protein levels of IL-1β, CXCL2, and IL-6 in the infected cornea.


Overall, Box A lessens the severity of Pseudomonas keratitis in mice by decreasing expression of TLR4, RAGE (their interaction with HMGB1), IL-1β, CXCL2 (decreasing neutrophil infiltrate), and bacterial plate count when given prophylactically. Therapeutic treatment was not as effective at reducing opacity (disease), but shared similar features with pretreatment of the mice.


Box A; RAGE; TLR4; cornea; mice

[Available on 2019-12-01]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center