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Front Neurol. 2018 Oct 23;9:888. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00888. eCollection 2018.

Diagnosis and Treatment of NMO Spectrum Disorder and MOG-Encephalomyelitis.

Author information

1
NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
2
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
3
Department of Neuroradiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
4
Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoantibody mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Serum antibodies (Abs) against the aquaporin-4 water channel lead to recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis and/or brainstem syndromes. In some patients with symptoms of NMOSD, no AQP4-Abs but Abs against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG) are detectable. These clinical syndromes are now frequently referred to as "MOG-encephalomyelitis" (MOG-EM). Here we give an overview on current recommendations concerning diagnosis of NMOSD and MOG-EM. These include antibody and further laboratory testing, MR imaging and optical coherence tomography. We discuss therapeutic options of acute attacks as well as longterm immunosuppressive treatment, including azathioprine, rituximab, and immunoglobulins.

KEYWORDS:

MOG-encephalomyelitis; aquaporin-4 antibodies; diagnostic criteria; immunosuppressive treatment; neuromyelitis optica

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