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3 Biotech. 2018 Nov;8(11):464. doi: 10.1007/s13205-018-1484-8. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Global challenges faced by engineered Bacillus thuringiensis Cry genes in soybean (Glycine max L.) in the twenty-first century.

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Department of Biological Control, Advanced Biotech Cooperative, Bali Nyonga, Cameroon.
2Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center (TFREC), College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences (CAHNRS), Washington State University, Pullman, USA.
3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied and Computer Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, 1911 Gauteng South Africa.
4Department of Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
5Department of Physical Science, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, 781035 Assam India.
6Department of Food and Bioresources Technology, The University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon.
7Department of Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté, Cameroon.
8Department of Biotechnology, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia, West Bengal 721657 India.


The most important insect pests causing severe economic damages to soybean (Glycine max L.) production worldwide are Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, Noctuidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, Erebidae), Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar, Noctuidae), Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham; Tortricidae), Spodoptera albula (Walker, Noctuidae), S. cosmiodes (Walker, Noctuidae), S. eridania (Stoll, Noctuidae), S. frugiperda (Smith; Noctuidae), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, Noctuidae), H. zea (Boddie; Noctuidae) and Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera,Platygastidae). Despite the success of biotech Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)/herbicide tolerance (HT)-soybean in the past decade in terms of output, unforeseen mitigated performances have been observed due to changes in climatic events that favors the emergence of insect resistance. Thus, there is a need to develop hybrids with elaborated gene stacking to avert the upsurge in insect field tolerance to crystal (Cry) toxins in Bt-soybean. This study covers the performance of important commercial transgenic soybean developed to outwit destructive insects. New gene stacking soybean events such as Cry1Ac-, Cry1AF- and PAT-soybean (DAS-81419-2®, Conkesta™ technology), and MON-87751-7 × MON-87701-2 × MON 87708 × MON 89788 (bearing Cry1A.105 [Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry1Ac], Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac) are being approved and deployed in fields. Following this deployment trend, we recommend herein that plant-mediated RNA interference into Bt-soybean, and the application of RNA-based pesticides that is complemented by other best agricultural practices such as refuge compliance, and periodic application of low-level insecticides could maximize trait durability in Bt-soybean production in the twenty-first century.


Armyworm; Gene pyramiding; RNA inference; RNAi-based pesticides; Refuge strategy; Resistance

[Available on 2019-11-01]

Conflict of interest statement

Compliance with ethical standardsNo potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

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