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Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2018 Dec;45(4):641-661. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2018.07.006. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Cardiovascular Implications of the Menopause Transition: Endogenous Sex Hormones and Vasomotor Symptoms.

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Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, Epidemiology Data Center, University of Pittsburgh, 4420 Bayard Street, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. Electronic address:
Departments of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


The menopause transition (MT) is a critical period of women's lives marked by several physiologic changes and menopause-related symptoms that have implications for health. Risk for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in women, increases after menopause, suggesting a contribution of the MT to its development. This article focuses on the relationship between 2 main features of the MT and women's cardiovascular health: (1) dynamic alterations of sex hormones, particularly endogenous estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, and (2) vasomotor symptoms, the cardinal symptom of the menopause. Limitations and future directions are discussed.


Estradiol; Follicle-stimulating hormone; Hot flashes; Menopause; Subclinical atherosclerosis; Vasomotor symptoms

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