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BMC Public Health. 2018 Nov 7;18(Suppl 3):1220. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-6055-8.

Individual and household level factors associated with presence of multiple non-communicable disease risk factors in Kenyan adults.

Author information

1
African Population and Health Research Center, 2nd Floor, APHRC Campus, Manga Close, Off Kirawa Road, Kitisuru, P.O. Box 10787 00100, Nairobi, Kenya. wekesah@gmail.com.
2
Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. wekesah@gmail.com.
3
Division of Non Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya.
4
The Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (UNIGE), Geneva, Switzerland.
5
African Population and Health Research Center, 2nd Floor, APHRC Campus, Manga Close, Off Kirawa Road, Kitisuru, P.O. Box 10787 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
6
Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
7
Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
8
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
9
Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), are increasing globally, causing about 60% of disability-adjusted life years and 39.8 million deaths in 2015. Risk factors often cluster and interact multiplicatively in an individual and this is strongly associated with the development and severity of NCDs. We assessed the sociodemographic factors associated with the presence of multiple NCD risk factors among individuals aged 18 years and older in the Kenyan population.

METHODS:

We used national representative data from 4066 individuals out of 4500 who participated in the WHO STEPs study in 2015. NCD risk factor counts were derived by summing the risk factors present in an individual and categorising into 1-3, 4-6 and 7+ risk factors in any combination of the 12 assessed NCD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol, insufficient physical activity, excessive alcohol use, tobacco use and obesity, excess sugar intake, insufficient fruit and vegetables intake, high salt consumption, and use of unhealthy cooking fats and oils). Ordered logistic regression was used to investigate the sociodemographic factors associated with an individual possesing multiple NCD risk factors.

RESULTS:

Majority (75.8%) of the individuals in the study possesed 4-6 and 10% had ≥7 NCDs risk factors. Nearly everyone (99.8%) had insufficient fruits and vegetable intakes, 89.5% consumed high salt in their diet and 80.3% did not engage in sufficient physical activity. Apart from NCD risk count which increased with age among both men and women, associations with other socio-demographic factors differed between men and women. A woman of Akamba ethinicity had lower odds (0.43) while Meru women had higher odds (3.58) of higher NCD risk factor count, compared to the Kalenjin women. Among men, being a Kisii or Luo was associated with lower odds (0.48 and 0.25 respectively) of higher NCD risk factor count. Women in a marital union had higher odds (1.58) of a higher NCD risk factor count.

CONCLUSION:

Majority of Kenyan adults possess more than four NCD risk factors; a clear indication of an emerging epidemic of NCDs in this population. Effective and multi-sectoral interventions targeting multiple risk factors in individuals are required to mitigate especially the behavioural and modifiable NCD risk factors in Kenya.

KEYWORDS:

Kenya; Multiple risk; Non-communicable disease; STEPs

PMID:
30400905
DOI:
10.1186/s12889-018-6055-8
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