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Biochemistry. 1987 Apr 21;26(8):2117-30.

Distance estimate of the active center of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from the membrane surface.


D-beta-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC is a membrane-bound, lipid-requiring enzyme which has a reactive sulfhydryl in the vicinity of the active center. The spin-probe-spin-label technique has been used to estimate the distance of separation of the reactive sulfhydryl of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from the bilayer surface. The reactive sulfhydryl of the enzyme was derivatized with the maleimide spin-label reagent 4-maleimido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy in the presence of the cofactor NAD+. The derivatized enzyme, inserted (inlaid orientation) into phospholipid vesicles, was titrated with spin probes, either Mn2+ or Gd3+, until the spin-label EPR spectrum was reduced in amplitude to its residual (limiting) value. From this limiting amplitude, the dipolar interaction coefficient was obtained, which is related to the reciprocal of the distance to the sixth power. The radial distances of closest approach of the paramagnetic Mn2+ and Gd3+ ions to the spin-label nitroxide on the enzyme were found to be 18 and 16 A, respectively. These calculated distances were in accord with those determined by comparison with a phosphatidylcholine calibration system having 2,2-dimethyloxazolidinyl-1-oxy spin-labels located at selected positions along the sn-2 fatty acyl chain. Since the distal nitroxide moiety of the maleimide spin-label (17 A from the bilayer surface) is 8 A from the sulfhydryl addition site, the two limiting distances of immersion of the reactive sulfhydryl within the bilayer are 9 and 25 A. The shorter distance is considered more compatible with facile access of the coenzyme to the active site of the enzyme.

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