Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Infect Chemother. 2019 Jan;25(1):22-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.10.002. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Nationwide study of outpatient oral antimicrobial utilization patterns for children in Japan (2013-2016).

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan; Disease Control and Prevention Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: nkinoshita@hosp.ncgm.go.jp.
2
Department of Social Medicine, Research Institute, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: morisaki-n@ncchd.go.jp.
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: uda-ka@ncchd.go.jp.
4
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children Hospital, Kobe, Japan. Electronic address: kyashii55@gmail.com.
5
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: yuho_horikoshi@tmhp.jp.
6
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Subspecialties, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA. Electronic address: miyairi-i@ncchd.go.jp.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major multinational public health concern. The Japanese government set goals in its AMR action plan to reduce use of oral cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones by half between 2013 and 2020. We aimed to evaluate antimicrobial use in children in Japan by observing prescription patterns as an interim assessment of the national AMR action plan.

METHODS:

Using the national health claims database, we retrospectively analyzed all oral antimicrobials dispensed from outpatient pharmacies in Japan to children under 15 years old from 2013 to 2016 by age, prefecture, type of antimicrobial, and year. Data were presented as days of therapy (DOTs) per 1000 pediatric inhabitants per day (DOTs/PID). The χ2 test for trends was performed to evaluate annual changes in DOTs/PID overall as well as within each stratum.

RESULTS:

A total of 721,627,553 oral antimicrobial DOTs were identified during 2013-2016. No statistically significant changes were observed in total antimicrobial use in children (2013: 28.54 DOTs/PID; 2016: 28.70 DOTs/PID; Ptrend = 0.25) and amount of cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones prescribed. Prescription rates of all antimicrobials were highest among children 1-5 years old, peaking at 1 year old. Targeted antimicrobials for the AMR action plan showed similar distribution by age.

CONCLUSION:

The amount of antimicrobials prescribed to children in Japan is not decreasing. Overall antimicrobial prescriptions, as well as prescriptions of cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones, were most prevalent in children ≤5 years old. Rigorous antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting infants and younger children are necessary.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial resistant microorganism; Antimicrobial use; Child; Database; Outpatients

PMID:
30396820
DOI:
10.1016/j.jiac.2018.10.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center