Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS Pathog. 2018 Nov 5;14(11):e1007394. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007394. eCollection 2018 Nov.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is necessary for coactivating hypoxia-inducible factor-1-dependent gene expression by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1.

Author information

Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Cancer Biology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.


Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is the major transforming protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and is critical for EBV-induced B-cell transformation in vitro. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) regulates accessibility of chromatin, alters functions of transcriptional activators and repressors, and has been directly implicated in transcriptional activation. Previously we showed that LMP1 activates PARP1 and increases Poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) through PARP1. Therefore, to identify targets of LMP1 that are regulated through PARP1, LMP1 was ectopically expressed in an EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. These LMP1-expressing cells were then treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib and prepared for RNA sequencing. The LMP1/PARP targets identified through this RNA-seq experiment are largely involved in metabolism and signaling. Interestingly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of RNA-seq data suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) is an LMP1 target mediated through PARP1. PARP1 is acting as a coactivator of HIF-1α-dependent gene expression in B cells, and this co-activation is enhanced by LMP1-mediated activation of PARP1. HIF-1α forms a PARylated complex with PARP1 and both HIF-1α and PARP1 are present at promoter regions of HIF-1α downstream targets, leading to accumulation of positive histone marks at these regions. Complex formation, PARylation and binding of PARP1 and HIF-1α at promoter regions of HIF-1α downstream targets can all be attenuated by PARP1 inhibition, subsequently leading to a buildup of repressive histone marks and loss of positive histone marks. In addition, LMP1 switches cells to a glycolytic 'Warburg' metabolism, preferentially using aerobic glycolysis over mitochondrial respiration. Finally, LMP1+ cells are more sensitive to PARP1 inhibition and, therefore, targeting PARP1 activity may be an effective treatment for LMP1+ EBV-associated malignancies.

Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center