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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Oct 26. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1809.09030. [Epub ahead of print]

Urease Characteristics and Phylogenetic Status of Bacillus paralicheniformis.

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Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Republic of Korea.
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyonggi University, Suwon 16227, Republic of Korea.


In 2015, Bacillus paralicheniformis was separated from B. licheniformis on the basis of phylogenomic and phylogenetic studies, and urease activity was reported as a phenotypic property able to differentiate between the two species. Subsequently, we have found that the urease activity of B. paralicheniformis is strain-specific, and does not reliably discriminate between species, as strains having the same urease gene cluster were identified in B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis, the closest relatives of B. paralicheniformis. We developed a multilocus sequence typing scheme using eight housekeeping genes, adk, ccpA, glpF, gmk, ilvD, pur, spo0A, and tpi to clearly identify B. paralicheniformis from closely related Bacillus species and to find a molecular marker for the rapid identification of B. paralicheniformis. The scheme differentiated 33 B. paralicheniformis strains from 90 strains formerly identified as B. licheniformis. Among the eight housekeeping genes, spo0A possesses appropriate polymorphic sites for the design of a B. paralichenofomis-specific PCR primer set. The primer set designed in this study perfectly separated B. paralicheniformis from B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis.


Bacillus licheniformis; Bacillus paralicheniformis; Bacillus sonorensis; MLST; Urease; spo0A

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