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Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 3. doi: 10.1007/s00787-018-1243-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Infant regulatory behavior problems during first month of life and neurobehavioral outcomes in early childhood.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, PO Box 21, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
2
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
3
Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, PO Box 21, 00014, Helsinki, Finland. marius.lahti-pulkkinen@helsinki.fi.
4
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. marius.lahti-pulkkinen@helsinki.fi.
5
University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. marius.lahti-pulkkinen@helsinki.fi.
6
Helsinki Collegium for Advance Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
7
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
8
Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
9
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland/Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
10
Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
11
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
12
HUSLAB and Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
13
Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
14
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Abstract

Whether infant regulatory behavior problems already in the first month of life indicate an increased risk of childhood neurobehavioral problems, and whether maternal depression in the postpartum and early childhood underpins these associations remain unclear. Altogether, 2049-2364 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Neonatal Perception Inventory on regulatory behavior problems at the infant's age of 15.6 days (SD 3.2, range 1-30), the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised on temperament at 6.5 months (SD 0.9, range 4.2-12.4), and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 on developmental milestones and the Child Behavior Checklist on behavioral problems at 3.5 years (SD 0.7, range 1.9-6.0). Maternal depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (infancy follow-ups) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (childhood follow-up). Father-rated infant temperament and paternal depressive symptoms were also available (n = 1474). Higher levels of infant regulatory behavior problems predicted higher levels of mother- and father-rated negative affectivity temperament (0.13 SD units per SD unit, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.17; and 0.09, 0.04-0.14, respectively), lower levels of mother-rated orienting/regulation temperament (- 0.09, - 0.13 to - 0.05) and problem-solving skills (- 0.12, - 0.21 to - 0.04), and higher levels of Externalizing (0.07, 0.03-0.11) and Total behavioral problems (0.07, 0.03-0.11). Regulatory behaviors partially mediated the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Regulatory behavior problems already during the first month of life predict neurobehavioral outcomes, and partially mediate the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Our study may inform design of interventions aimed at timely prevention in children at risk.

KEYWORDS:

Depressive symptoms; Infant; Neurobehavioral outcomes; Regulatory behavior; Temperament

PMID:
30392118
DOI:
10.1007/s00787-018-1243-8

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