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Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Jan 25;298:52-56. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2018.10.029. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Cytotoxicity of benzophenone-3, an organic ultraviolet filter, caused by increased intracellular Zn2+ levels in rat thymocytes.

Author information

1
Department of Food-Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima, Japan.
2
Department of Food Science, Tokushima University Graduate School of Technology, Industrial and Social Sciences, Bioscience and Bioindustry, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.
3
Kousei General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.
4
Department of Food-Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima, Japan. Electronic address: kamemura.norio@tks.bunri-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is often used as an ultraviolet (UV) light filter in sunscreen products. Although BP-3 protects the human skin and hair from damage caused by excessive UV radiation, it is reported to exhibit toxic effects in human. However, the cytotoxicity of BP-3 on various cells is still not well understood. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of BP-3 against rat thymocytes was evaluated using a flow cytometric technique with fluorescent probes. Cell mortality increased significantly after 3 h of exposure to 300 μM BP-3, whereas the mean intensity of 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (5-CMF) fluorescence and cellular content of non-protein thiols decreased significantly. However, the membrane potential of thymocytes was not change by BP-3 treatment. Moreover, intracellular Zn2+ levels increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in response to 30 μM BP-3 or higher. The BP-3-induced changes in intracellular Zn2+ levels and non-protein thiol content increased the vulnerability of thymocytes to oxidative stress. We concluded that BP-3-induced cytotoxicity may be caused by oxidative stress associated with an increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels.

KEYWORDS:

5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (5-CMF-DA); Benzophenone-3; Benzophenone-3 (BP-3); Cytotoxicity; Oxidative stress; Propidium iodide (PI); Zn(2+)

PMID:
30391638
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbi.2018.10.029
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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