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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Jul;242(1):33-9.

Kappa agonist-induced diuresis: evidence for stereoselectivity, strain differences, independence of hydration variables and a result of decreased plasma vasopressin levels.


Marked diuresis has previously been reported after administration of kappa opioid agonists. The present study shows that this effect is stereospecific; MR-2034 markedly increased urinary output over the dose range 0.08 to 1.25 mg/kg, whereas the opposite isomer, MR-2035, was markedly less potent. Bremazocine increased urinary output in Long-Evans hooded and Sprague-Dawley albino rats as well as lean and fatty Zucker rats. In the lean Zucker and the albino rats, bremazocine produced an inverted U-shaped diuretic dose-effect curve, an effect characteristic of kappa agonists with mu agonist activity. This pattern was not seen with the fatty Zucker rats or the Long-Evans hooded rats. The full kappa agonists bremazocine, ethylketazocine and U-50,488 increased urinary output under three different conditions of hydration: water loaded, normal hydration and water deprived. In contrast, the partial kappa agonists reliably only increase urinary output under the normal hydration condition. The diuretic effects of full and partial kappa agonists correlated with plasma vasopressin levels in water-deprived rats. The full kappa agonists (ethylketazocine, U-50,488, tifluadom and MR-2034) suppressed plasma vasopressin levels below the threshold of detectability of the radioimmunoassay, whereas the partial kappa agonists (nalorphine and butorphanol) suppressed vasopressin levels compared with control values but did not have the efficacy of the full kappa agonists. All these results support the hypothesis that kappa agonists produce their diuretic effect by suppression of plasma vasopressin levels.

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