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Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018 Dec;28:52-58. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.07.009. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Effects of walnuts consumption on vascular endothelial function in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2
School of Nutrition, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, M5B 2K3, Ontario, Canada.
3
Faculty of Kinesiology & Health Studies, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
4
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
5
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
6
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Meta-research Innovation Office, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address: Zohreh.mazloom@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACHGROUND AND AIMS:

Endothelial dysfunction can promote atherosclerosis pathogenesis. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the effects of walnut consumption on peripheral endothelial function (EF) in adults.

METHODS:

PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify studies up to August 2017. Eligible studies conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of walnut consumption compared with a control on EF. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as summary statistics. Standard methods were used for assessment of heterogeneity, meta-regression, sensitivity analysis and publication bias.

RESULTS:

Five studies comprising a total of 323 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed a significant increase in EF after walnut consumption (SMD: 0.40%; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.62; p < 0.001) with no evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the effect size was robust and not sensitive to any single study. Meta-regression did not indicate any significant association for an increase in EF after walnut consumption with dose of treatment, duration of treatment, or baseline EF.

CONCLUSION:

The available evidence from RCTs suggests there may be a clinically relevant effect of walnut consumption on EF.

KEYWORDS:

Endothelial; Juglans; Walnut

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