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Curr Med Chem. 2018 Nov 1. doi: 10.2174/0929867325666181101111819. [Epub ahead of print]

Dynamics of T cells repertoire during Trypanosoma cruzi infection and its post-treatment modulation.

Author information

1
Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López-Neyra, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; Granada. Spain.
2
Grupo de Inmunobiología y Biología Celular, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Bogotá. Colombia.
3
Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina "López-Neyra", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPBLN-CSIC), Granada. Spain.

Abstract

Chagas disease courses with different clinical phases and has a variable clinical presentation and progression. The acute infection phase mostly exhibits a non-specific symptomatology. In the absence of treatment, the acute phase is followed by a chronic phase, which is initially asymptomatic. This chronic asymptomatic phase of the disease is characterized by a fragile balance between the host's immune response and the parasite replication. The loss of this balance results crucial for progression of the sickness. The virulence and tropism of the T. cruzi infecting strain together to the inflammation processes in the cardiac tissue are main factors for the establishment and severity of the cardiomyopathy. The efficacy of treatment in chronic Chagas disease patients is controversial. However, several studies carried out in chronic patients demonstrated that antiparasitic treatment reduces parasite load in the blood stream and leads to an improvement in the immune response against the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. The present review is mainly focused on the cellular patterns associated to the clinical status and the evolution of the disease in chronic patients, as well as the effectiveness of the treatment related to T. cruzi infection control. Therefore, an emphasis is placed about of dynamics of specific-antigens T cell subpopulations, their memory and activation phenotypes, their functionality and their contribution to pathogenesis or disease control, as well as their association with risk of congenital transmission of the parasite.

KEYWORDS:

CD8 and CD4 T cells; CTL epitopes; Chagas disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; biomarker; immune response; trypanocidal treatment; vertical transmission.

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