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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019 Feb;83(2):348-356. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2018.1537775. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Sika deer (Cervus nippon) velvet antler extract attenuates prostate cancer in xenograft model.

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a School of Bio-science and Food Engineering , Changchun University of Science and Technology , Changchun , China.
b Division of Food Bioscience, College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering , Konkuk University , Chungju , Republic of Korea.
c Jilin University , Changchun , China.


The present study determines whether antler extract (AE) possesses inhibitory effects in a prostate cancer (PC) xenograft model and explores the underlying mechanism. After therapeutic intervention for two weeks, AE significantly inhibited prostate cancer xenograft tumor growth by 65.08%, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. However, AE increased the serum testosterone level compared to the vehicle control group. Furthermore, our investigation of the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes revealed that AE downregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP)-2, (MMP)-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), zinc finger protein (SNAIL1), twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1), and zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) in vivo. In contrast, AE increased tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1, (TIMP)-2, and E-cadherin. The results suggest that AE possesses potent anti-PC activity, and this is the first report on the anti-PC effect of AE in vivo.


Antler; angiogenesis; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; xenograft model

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