Send to

Choose Destination
Pharmacology. 2019;103(1-2):38-49. doi: 10.1159/000494058. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Tetanic Facilitation of Neuromuscular Transmission by Adenosine A2A and Muscarinic M1 Receptors is Dependent on the Uptake of Choline via High-Affinity Transporters.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.
Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Neurobiology/Center for Drug Discovery and Innovative Medicines (MedInUP), Instituto de CiênciasBiomédicas de Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, State University of Maringá, Maringá,



In this study, we evaluated the functional impact of facilitatory presynaptic adenosine A2A and muscarinic M1 receptors in the recovery of neuromuscular tetanic depression caused by the blockage of high-affinity choline transporter (HChT) by hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a condition that mimics a myasthenia-like condition.


Rat diaphragm preparations were indirectly stimulated via the phrenic nerve trunk with 50-Hz frequency trains, each consisting of 500-750 supramaximal intensity pulses. The tension at the beginning (A) and at the end (B) of the tetanus was recorded and the ratio (R) B/A calculated.


Activation of A2A and M1 receptors with CGS21680 (CGS; 2 nmol/L) and McN-A-343c (McN; 3 μmol/L) increased R values. Similar facilitatory effects were obtained with forskolin (FSK; 3 μmol/L) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10 μmol/L), which activate adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C respectively. HC-3 (4 μmol/L) decreased transmitter exocytosis measured by real-time videomicroscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye and prevented the facilitation of neuromuscular transmission caused by CGS, McN, and FSK, with a minor effect on PMA. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEO; 0.5 μmol/L), also decreased transmitter exocytosis. The paradoxical neuromuscular tetanic fade caused by NEO (0.5 μmol/L) was also prevented by HC-3 (4 μmol/L) and might result from the rundown of the positive feedback mechanism operated by neuronal nicotinic receptors (blocked by hexamethonium, 120 μmol/L).


Data suggest that the recovery of tetanic neuromuscular facilitation by adenosine A2A and M1 receptors is highly dependent on HChT activity and may be weakened in myasthenic patients when HChT is inoperative.


Muscarinic receptors; Adenosine receptors; Hemicholinium; High-affinity choline transporter ; Neuromuscular tetanic fade

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for S. Karger AG, Basel, Switzerland
Loading ...
Support Center