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Occup Environ Med. 2019 Mar;76(3):181-188. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2018-105278. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Urinary 2,5-dicholorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol concentrations and prevalent disease among adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

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Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
Cancer Control Research, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Program in Epidemiology, Public Health Sciences Divisions, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.



To test cross-sectional associations between urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, lung disease, thyroid problems and liver conditions.


Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP with prevalence of various medical conditions among 3617 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. ORs and 95% CIs for each disease were estimated. All regression models were adjusted for urinary creatinine.


We observed a monotonically increasing association between quartiles of 2,5-DCP and prevalence of CVD. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, participants with the highest versus lowest quartile of urinary 2,5-DCP had an OR=1.84 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.70) (p linear trend=0.006). The association was similar with further adjustment for established clinical CVD risk factors. Higher 2,5-DCP was also associated with prevalence of all cancers combined (ORQ4 vs Q1=1.50 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.26); p trend=0.05) and, in exploratory analyses, with gynaecological cancers (ORQ4 vs Q1=4.15 (95% CI 1.51 to 11.40; p trend=0.01)). No associations were detected between 2,5-DCP and lung diseases, thyroid problems or liver conditions, nor between 2,4-DCP and prevalent disease.


In this nationally representative study, higher urinary 2,5-DCP concentrations were associated with greater prevalence of CVD and all cancers combined. Further examination may be warranted to assess whether chronic exposure to 2,5-DCP is associated with incidence of adverse health outcomes.


cancer; cardiovascular; cross sectional studies; endocrine disrupters; epidemiology

[Available on 2020-03-01]

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