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J Athl Train. 2018 Oct 30. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-271-17. [Epub ahead of print]

Incidence of Sport-Related Internal Organ Injuries Due to Direct-Contact Mechanisms Among High School and Collegiate Athletes Across 3 National Surveillance Systems.

Author information

1
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
2
National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
3
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora.
4
Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention, Inc, Indianapolis, IN.
5
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Although sport-related internal organ injuries among athletes are relatively infrequent, combining data sources enables a more comprehensive examination of their incidence.

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the incidence and characteristics of sport-related internal organ injuries due to direct-contact mechanisms among high school (HS) and collegiate sports from 2005-2006 through 2014-2015.

DESIGN:

Descriptive epidemiology study.

SETTING:

United States HS and collegiate sports data from 3 national sports injury-surveillance systems: High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO), the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program (ISP), and the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:

High school and collegiate athletes in organized sports.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Characteristics of the athlete, event, and injury were examined and stratified by data source and sport. Descriptive statistics of internal organ injuries via direct-contact mechanisms consisted of frequencies and incidence rates (IRs) per 1 000 000 athlete-exposures and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS:

During the 10-year period, 174 internal organ injuries were captured: 124 in HS RIO and 41 in the ISP; 9 were catastrophic. Most noncatastrophic injuries occurred among men (RIO = 85%, ISP = 89%), in football (RIO = 65%, ISP = 58%), and during competition (RIO = 67%, ISP = 49%) and were due to player-player contact (RIO = 78%, ISP = 68%). The highest injury rates were in male contact sports: RIO football (IR = 11.7; 95% CI = 9.1, 14.2) and lacrosse (IR = 10.0; 95% CI = 3.1, 16.9); ISP: football (IR = 8.3; 95% CI = 5.0, 11.6) and ice hockey (IR = 7.9; 95% CI = 1.0, 14.7). A quarter of noncatastrophic injuries were season ending (RIO = 25%, ISP = 23%). Of the 9 catastrophic injuries, most occurred in HS (7/9) and football (7/9) and were due to player-player contact (6/9). Four resulted in death.

CONCLUSIONS:

Direct-contact internal organ injuries occur infrequently; yet when they do occur, they may result in severe outcomes. These findings suggest that early recognition and a better understanding of the activities associated with the event and use or nonuse of protective equipment are needed.

KEYWORDS:

catastrophic injuries; epidemiology; injury surveillance

PMID:
30376372
DOI:
10.4085/1062-6050-271-17

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