Send to

Choose Destination
Acta Oncol. 2018 Oct 30:1-9. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2018.1529427. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-androgen monotherapy versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in men with advanced, non-metastatic prostate cancer: a register-based, observational study.

Author information

a Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center, Department of Urology , Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.
b Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences , King's College London , London , UK.
c Regional Cancer Centre Uppsala Örebro , Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
d CLINTEC-department , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
e Unit of Epidemiology , Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
f Medical Evidence and Observational Research, Global Medicines Development , AstraZeneca , Stockholm , Sweden.
g Department of Surgical Sciences , Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.



In randomised controlled trials, men with advanced, non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) treated with anti-androgen monotherapy (AA) had similar all-cause mortality as men treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Using real-world evidence (i.e., observational data), we aimed to further assess the difference in mortality between these two drug categories.


We emulated a trial using data from Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 3.0. We specifically focused on men diagnosed in 2006-2012 with high-risk PCa who had no distant metastasis. They either received primary hormonal therapy with AA (n = 2078) or GnRH agonists (n = 4878) who were followed for a median time of 5 years. Risk of death from PCa and other causes was assessed using competing risk analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, including propensity score matching.


The cumulative 5-year PCa mortality was lower for men treated with AA (16% [95% confidence interval, CI, 15-18%]) than men treated with GnRH agonists (22% [95% CI 21-24%]). The 5-year other cause mortality was also lower for men on AA (17% [95% CI 15-19%] compared to men on GnRH agonists (27% [95% CI 25-28%]). In regression analyses, the risk of PCa death was similar, GnRH agonists versus AA (reference), hazard ratio (HR) 1.08 (95% CI 0.95-1.23), but the risk of death from all causes was higher for men on GnRH agonists, HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.13-1.34). Consistent results were seen in the propensity score-matched cohort.


Our results indicate that the use of AA as primary hormonal therapy in men with high-risk non-metastatic PCa does not increase PCa-specific mortality compared to GnRH. Using AA instead of GnRH agonists may result in shorter time on/exposure to GnRH-treatment, which may reduce the risk of adverse events associated with this treatment.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center