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Br J Nutr. 2018 Dec;120(11):1230-1239. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518002726. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

A diet high in sugar-sweetened beverage and low in fruits and vegetables is associated with adiposity and a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile.

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1Department of Research & Evaluation,Kaiser Permanente Southern California,Pasadena,CA,USA.
2Department of Preventive Medicine,Keck School of Medicine,University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.
3USC Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute,University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.


Diet, obesity and adipokines play important roles in diabetes and CVD; yet, limited studies have assessed the relationship between diet and multiple adipokines. This cross-sectional study assessed associations between diet, adiposity and adipokines in Mexican Americans. The cohort included 1128 participants (age 34·7±8·2 years, BMI 29·5±5·9 kg/m2, 73·2 % female). Dietary intake was assessed by 12-month food frequency questionnaire. Adiposity was measured by BMI, total percentage body fat and percentage trunk fat using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adiponectin, apelin, C-reactive protein (CRP), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV), IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-18, leptin, lipocalin, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), resistin, secreted frizzled protein 4 (SFRP-4), SFRP-5, TNF-α and visfatin were assayed with multiplex kits or ELISA. Joint multivariate associations between diet, adiposity and adipokines were analysed using canonical correlations adjusted for age, sex, energy intake and kinship. The median (interquartile range) energy intake was 9514 (7314, 11912) kJ/d. Overall, 55 % of total intake was accounted for by carbohydrates (24 % from sugar). A total of 66 % of the shared variation between diet and adiposity, and 34 % of diet and adipokines were explained by the top canonical correlation. The diet component was most represented by sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetables. Participants consuming a diet high in SSB and low in fruits and vegetables had higher adiposity, CRP, leptin, and MCP-1, but lower SFRP-5 than participants with high fruit and vegetable and low SSB intake. In Mexican Americans, diets high in SSB but low in fruits and vegetables contribute to adiposity and a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile.


CCA canonical correlation analysis; CRP C-reactive protein; DPP-IV dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GDM gestational diabetes mellitus; HighSSB/LowFV high in sugar-sweetened beverages and low in fruit and vegetables; LowSSB/HighFV low in sugar-sweetened beverages and high in fruit and vegetables; MCP-1 monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1; SFRP secreted frizzled protein; SSB sugar-sweetened beverages; Adipokines; Adiposity; Fruit; Sugar-sweetened beverages; Vegetables

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