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J Med Case Rep. 2018 Oct 30;12(1):321. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1862-1.

Dengue shock syndrome complicated with acute liver failure and kidney injury, infective endocarditis, and deep vein thrombosis: a case report.

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National Hospital of Sri Lanka, E W Perera Mawatha, Colombo, 00700, Sri Lanka.
National Hospital of Sri Lanka, E W Perera Mawatha, Colombo, 00700, Sri Lanka.



Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease with a very high incidence in Southeast Asia. Most patients with dengue fever recover following a self-limiting febrile illness, while a small proportion may progress to develop severe disease with complications such as acute liver failure, acute kidney injury, and multiorgan failure. Secondary bacterial infections and thrombotic events are very rare.


A 38-year-old previously healthy Sri Lankan woman from Colombo, Sri Lanka, presented with dengue shock syndrome leading to acute liver failure and kidney injury. She was managed with intravenously administered fluid resuscitation with close monitoring of her hemodynamic status, and hemodialysis. Her renal and liver functions and platelet count improved gradually, but the fever persisted and there was a neutrophil leukocytosis. A clinical examination and investigations to identify a focus of secondary infection revealed staphylococcal infective endocarditis. She was started on intravenously administered vancomycin, but as the response was poor the antibiotic was changed to intravenously administered linezolid, to which the response was good. She also developed right proximal femoral deep vein thrombosis, and was commenced on subcutaneous enoxaparin and warfarin. Enoxaparin was stopped after her international normalized ratio reached the desirable range, and warfarin was continued for 3 months.


Dengue virus is known to cause endothelial dysfunction that allows bacteria to invade tissues, defective functioning and reduction in the number of cells of the immune system, and alteration of cytokines leading to immune dysregulation, predisposing patients to develop secondary bacterial infections. Evidently, patients with dengue fever who have prolonged fever (more than 5 days) and acute kidney injury are at high risk for concurrent bacteremia. Dengue virus interferes with the components of the anti-clotting pathway, such as thrombomodulin-thrombin-protein C complex. It also activates endothelial cells and increases the expression of procoagulant factors. These factors may predispose patients with dengue viral infections to develop thrombotic complications. Therefore it is important to be aware of the possibility of serious secondary bacterial infections occurring following dengue viral infections, especially in patients with prolonged fever and acute kidney injury, and to keep in mind that thrombotic events may occur as complications of dengue viral infections.


Deep vein thrombosis; Dengue shock syndrome; Infective endocarditis

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