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Sensors (Basel). 2018 Oct 28;18(11). pii: E3655. doi: 10.3390/s18113655.

Guiding Ketogenic Diet with Breath Acetone Sensors.

Author information

1
Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Andreas.Guentner@ptl.mavt.ethz.ch.
2
Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. juliako@student.ethz.ch.
3
Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. landish@student.ethz.ch.
4
Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. jtheodor@student.ethz.ch.
5
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland. sotiris.pratsinis@ptl.mavt.ethz.ch.
6
Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland. Noriane.Sievi@usz.ch.
7
Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland. Malcolm.Kohler@usz.ch.
8
Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Bettina.Geidl@usz.ch.
9
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland. Philipp.Gerber@usz.ch.

Abstract

Ketogenic diet (KD; high fat, low carb) is a standard treatment for obesity, neurological diseases (e.g., refractory epilepsy) and a promising method for athletes to improve their endurance performance. Therein, the level of ketosis must be regulated tightly to ensure an effective therapy. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath sensor to monitor ketosis online and non-invasively. The sensor consists of Si-doped WO₃ nanoparticles that detect breath acetone selectively with non-linear response characteristics in the relevant range of 1 to 66 ppm, as identified by mass spectrometry. When tested on eleven subjects (five women and six men) undergoing a 36-h KD based on the Johns Hopkins protocol, this sensor clearly recognizes the onset and progression of ketosis. This is in good agreement to capillary blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) measurements. Despite similar dieting conditions, strong inter-subject differences in ketosis dynamics were observed and correctly identified by the sensor. These even included breath acetone patterns that could be linked to low tolerance to that diet. As a result, this portable breath sensor represents an easily applicable and reliable technology to monitor KD, possibly during medical treatment of epilepsy and weight loss.

KEYWORDS:

biomedical; breath analysis; chemical sensor; flame spray pyrolysis; nanotechnology; point-of-care; semiconductor

PMID:
30373291
DOI:
10.3390/s18113655
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