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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 Mar 20;59(4):AMD132-AMD142. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-24059.

Association Between Osteoporosis and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea.
Department of Ophthalmology, Dankook University Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, South Korea.



Previous studies have reported a possible link between low bone mineral density and AMD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between osteoporosis and AMD in a South Korean cohort.


This cross-sectional, nationwide study included 3496 women and 2789 men who had participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. All retinal photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Osteoporosis was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between osteoporosis and AMD after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, the body mass index, dietary calcium intake, and the serum vitamin D level. The odds ratios (OR) for other aging-related eye diseases, including cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, were analyzed in accordance with the presence of osteoporosis.


Multivariate regression analysis revealed that osteoporosis was significantly associated with all types of AMD (early and late: OR, 1.31; P = 0.017) and early AMD (OR, 1.36; P = 0.007) in women. Late AMD was not associated with osteoporosis (OR, 0.84; P = 0.670). In men, osteoporosis was not associated with any type of AMD. In women, the status of osteoporosis in the femoral neck showed a linear relationship with AMD (P = 0.004). Although osteoporosis was associated with AMD in women, it showed no association with other age-related eye diseases; this suggested a disease-specific association.


Our findings suggest that osteoporosis plays a role in AMD development in postmenopausal women.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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