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J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Aug 7;7(15):e008939. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.008939.

Mitochondrial-Mediated Oxidative Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II Activation Induces Early Afterdepolarizations in Guinea Pig Cardiomyocytes: An In Silico Study.

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1 Key Laboratory for Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of Education Tianjin University Tianjin China.
2 Department of Medicine University of Alabama at Birmingham AL.
3 Department of Biomedical Engineering University of Alabama at Birmingham AL.


Background Oxidative stress-mediated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca MKII) phosphorylation of cardiac ion channels has emerged as a critical contributor to arrhythmogenesis in cardiac pathology. However, the link between mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (md ROS ) and increased Ca MKII activity in the context of cardiac arrhythmias has not been fully elucidated and is difficult to establish experimentally. Methods and Results We hypothesize that pathological md ROS can cause erratic action potentials through the oxidation-dependent Ca MKII activation pathway. We further propose that Ca MKII -dependent phosphorylation of sarcolemmal slow Na+ channels alone is sufficient to elicit early afterdepolarizations. To test the hypotheses, we expanded our well-established guinea pig cardiomyocyte excitation- contraction coupling, mitochondrial energetics, and ROS - induced- ROS - release model by incorporating oxidative Ca MKII activation and Ca MKII -dependent Na+ channel phosphorylation in silico. Simulations show that md ROS mediated-Ca MKII activation elicits early afterdepolarizations by augmenting the late Na+ currents, which can be suppressed by blocking L-type Ca2+ channels or Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. Interestingly, we found that oxidative Ca MKII activation-induced early afterdepolarizations are sustained even after md ROS has returned to its physiological levels. Moreover, mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant treatment can suppress the early afterdepolarizations, but only if given in an appropriate time window. Incorporating concurrent md ROS -induced ryanodine receptors activation further exacerbates the proarrhythmogenic effect of oxidative Ca MKII activation. Conclusions We conclude that oxidative Ca MKII activation-dependent Na channel phosphorylation is a critical pathway in mitochondria-mediated cardiac arrhythmogenesis.


arrhythmias; computational modeling; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative CaMKII activation

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