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Gastroenterology. 2019 Jan;156(2):325-337. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.10.032. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Targeting Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Cure Chronic HBV Infection.

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Toronto Centre for Liver Disease and Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada; Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich/Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich partner site, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:


Fewer than 1% of chronic hepatitis B virus infections per year are cured with antiviral treatment. This creates a need for long-term treatment, which poses challenges for patients and health systems. Because cure is accompanied by recovery of antiviral immunity, a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents and immunotherapy are likely to be required. Extensive efforts have been made to identify determinants of the failed immune response to hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic infection. We review mechanisms of immune dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, immunotherapy strategies in development, and the challenges associated with successful implementation of immunotherapy.


Drug; HBsAg; Inflammation; Vaccine

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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