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Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Oct 26. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky999. [Epub ahead of print]

Victors: a web-based knowledge base of virulence factors in human and animal pathogens.

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Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330045, China.
Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350013, China.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System and Research Service, VA Ann Arbor Health Systems, Ann Arbor 48109, MI, USA.
Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China.
Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
CAS Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China.
School of Life Science and Technology, Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai 201210, China.


Virulence factors (VFs) are molecules that allow microbial pathogens to overcome host defense mechanisms and cause disease in a host. It is critical to study VFs for better understanding microbial pathogenesis and host defense mechanisms. Victors ( is a novel, manually curated, web-based integrative knowledge base and analysis resource for VFs of pathogens that cause infectious diseases in human and animals. Currently, Victors contains 5296 VFs obtained via manual annotation from peer-reviewed publications, with 4648, 179, 105 and 364 VFs originating from 51 bacterial, 54 viral, 13 parasitic and 8 fungal species, respectively. Our data analysis identified many VF-specific patterns. Within the global VF pool, cytoplasmic proteins were more common, while adhesins were less common compared to findings on protective vaccine antigens. Many VFs showed homology with host proteins and the human proteins interacting with VFs represented the hubs of human-pathogen interactions. All Victors data are queriable with a user-friendly web interface. The VFs can also be searched by a customized BLAST sequence similarity searching program. These VFs and their interactions with the host are represented in a machine-readable Ontology of Host-Pathogen Interactions. Victors supports the 'One Health' research as a vital source of VFs in human and animal pathogens.


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