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Open Heart. 2018 Oct 16;5(2):e000914. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2018-000914. eCollection 2018.

Antioxidant bilirubin works in multiple ways to reduce risk for obesity and its health complications.

Author information

Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.
Catalytic Longevity, San Diego, California, USA.


NADPH oxidase; bilirubin; obesity; phycocyanobilin; spirulina

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: JJD is author of The Salt Fix and Superfuel. MFM is an owner of a nutraceutical company and co-inventor and co-owner of a US patent covering nutraceutical uses of phycocyanobilin oligopeptides derived from cyanobacteria such as spirulina. JHO is an owner of a nutraceutical company.

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