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J Clin Nurs. 2019 Mar;28(5-6):762-774. doi: 10.1111/jocn.14708. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Self-awareness in nursing: A scoping review.

Author information

1
Shifa College of Nursing, Islamabad, Pakistan.
2
Memorial School of Nursing, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
3
School of Social Work, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
4
Al-Shifa Eye Trust Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
5
Healthcare Management at RIPAH University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abstract

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

To outline and examine the literature about self-awareness in nursing and to identify areas for future research and practice.

BACKGROUND:

Self-awareness is important for the personal and professional development of nurses, for developing an effective nurse-patient relationship and for improving nursing abilities. Despite its importance in nursing and therapeutic nurse-patient relationship and its evolving nature, the knowledge base for self-awareness in nursing remains under-examined.

DESIGN:

A scoping review using PRISMA guidelines.

METHODS:

A five-step approach: (a) identification of research question; (b) identification of relevant studies using a three-step search: keywords search within PubMed and CINAHL, literature search within PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Google Scholar, and literature search of references lists; (c) study selection; (d) data extraction and charting; (e) data collation, summarisation and reporting, was used.

FINDINGS:

Of 1,531 identified sources, 76 full-text sources were read and 29 English language sources, published from January 1980 until January 2018, which included nurses or nursing students, were reviewed. Two themes: perspectives on self-awareness and strategies for enhancing self-awareness emerged. Under these themes, conceptualisation of self-awareness; its antecedents and value; and theory-based, educational and personal strategies for its enhancement were described. There is sufficient literature regarding self-awareness conceptualisation and theory-based strategies for its enhancement, but inconclusive evidence regarding value of self-awareness, and educational and personal strategies for its improvement.

CONCLUSION:

There is limited research on self-awareness. Most of the literature comprises of theoretical discussions and opinions which adequately provide a conceptual understanding of self-awareness. However, more empirical and applied research is needed to apply the available theoretical knowledge in practice.

RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:

This review delineated theoretical, educational and personal strategies for nurses to improve their self-awareness and indicated that engagement in self-awareness at relational and contextual levels is essential for developing nurse-patient relationship.

KEYWORDS:

interpersonal relationship; nurse-patient relationship; nursing; reflection; self-awareness

PMID:
30362645
DOI:
10.1111/jocn.14708
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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