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Clin Nutr. 2018 Sep 27. pii: S0261-5614(18)32463-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.025. [Epub ahead of print]

A double-blind placebo controlled trial into the impacts of HMB supplementation and exercise on free-living muscle protein synthesis, muscle mass and function, in older adults.

Author information

1
MRC-ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, UK.
2
MRC-ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, UK; Nottingham NIHR BRC, UK.
3
Metabolic Technologies, Inc, Iowa State University Research Park, 2711 S. Loop Drive, Ste 4400, Ames, IA, 50010, USA.
4
MRC-ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, UK; Nottingham NIHR BRC, UK. Electronic address: ken.smith@nottingham.ac.uk.

Abstract

Age-related sarcopenia and dynapenia are associated with frailty and metabolic diseases. Resistance exercise training (RET) adjuvant to evidence-based nutritional intervention(s) have been shown as mitigating strategies. Given that β-hydroxy-β-methyl-butyrate (HMB) supplementation during RET improves lean body mass in younger humans, and that we have shown that HMB acutely stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and inhibits breakdown; we hypothesized that chronic supplementation of HMB free acid (HMB-FA) would enhance MPS and muscle mass/function in response to RET in older people. We recruited 16 healthy older men (Placebo (PLA): 68.5 ± 1.0 y, HMB-FA: 67.8 ± 1.15 y) for a randomised double-blind-placebo controlled trial (HMB-FA 3 × 1 g/day vs. PLA) involving a 6-week unilateral progressive RET regime (6 × 8 repetitions, 75% 1-RM, 3 · wk-1). Deuterium oxide (D2O) dosing was performed over the first two weeks (0-2 wk) and last two weeks (4-6 wk) with bilateral vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies at 0-2 and 4-6 wk (each time 75 ± 2 min after a single bout of resistance exercise (RE)) for quantification of early and later MPS responses and post-RE myogenic gene expression. Thigh lean mass (TLM) was measured by DXA, VL thickness and architecture (fibre length and pennation angle) by ultrasound at 0/3/6 wk, and strength by knee extensor 1-RM testing and MVC by isokinetic dynamometry (approx. every 10 days). RET induced strength increases (1-RM) in the exercised leg of both groups (398 ± 22N to 499 ± 30N HMB-FA vs. 396 ± 29N to 510 ± 43N PLA (both P < 0.05)). In addition, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) also increased (179 ± 12 Nm to 203 ± 12 Nm HMB-FA vs. 185 ± 10 Nm to 217 ± 11 Nm PLA (both P < 0.05); with no group differences. VL muscle thickness increased significantly in the exercised leg in both groups, with no group differences. TLM (by DXA) rose to significance only in the HMB-FA group (by 5.8%-5734 ± 245 g p = 0.015 vs. 3.0% to 5644 ± 323 g P = 0.06 in PLA). MPS remained unchanged in the untrained legs (UT) 0-2 weeks being 1.06 ± 0.08%.d-1 (HMB-FA) and 1.14 ± 0.09%.d-1 (PLA), the trained legs (T) exhibited increased MPS in the HMB-FA group only at 0-2-weeks (1.39 ± 0.10%.d-1, P < 0.05) compared with UT: but was not different at 4-6-weeks: 1.26 ± 0.05%.d-1. However, there were no significant differences in MPS between the HMB-FA and PLA groups at any given time point and no significant treatment interaction observed. We also observed significant inductions of c-Myc gene expression following each acute RE bout, with no group differences. Further, there were no changes in any other muscle atrophy/hypertrophy or myogenic transcription factor genes we measured. RET with adjuvant HMB-FA supplements in free-living healthy older men did not enhance muscle strength or mass greater than that of RET alone (PLA). That said, only HMB-FA increased TLM, supported by early increases in chronic MPS. As such, chronic HMB-FA supplementation may result in long term benefits in older males, however longer and larger studies may be needed to fully determine the potential effects of HMB-FA supplementation; translating to any functional benefit.

KEYWORDS:

D(2)O; Exercise; HMB; Skeletal muscle; Stable isotopes

PMID:
30360984
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.025
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