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J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2019 Feb 1;19(2):1176-1179. doi: 10.1166/jnn.2019.15904.

The Vasorelaxatory Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Spornioderm on Porcine Coronary Artery.

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College of Pharmacy and Natural Medicine Research Institute, Mokpo National University, Muan, 58554, Republic of Korea.
Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University, Muan, 58554, Republic of Korea.


Endothelium dysfunction is a hallmark of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is characterized by loss of homeostasis. Nitric oxide deprivation, unbalanced production of vasoactive factors such as thromboxane, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and production of reactive oxygen species are known as early indicators of CVD. Bioavailability of nitric oxide, antioxidative activity, and regulation of ionic homeostasis are the key targets for prevention of CVD. In this study, we investigated the vasorelaxant action of Nelumbo nucifera extract as well as the underlying mechanism using porcine coronary artery. Vasorelaxant effect of extracts from four different parts of Nelumbo nucifera (flower, leaf, seed, and spornioderm) was tested. Among them, extracts from Nelumbo nucifera spornioderm (NNS) showed the strongest endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Vasorelaxation effect of NNS was markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inhibitor of Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), but unaffected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and EDHF. NNS induced concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, our study demonstrated that NNS is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, mediated by PI3K-eNOS-sGC pathway. Our present findings showed NNS as a potential herbal candidate for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.


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