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Korean J Pediatr. 2019 May;62(5):166-172. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2018.06632. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Association between vitamin D level at birth and respiratory morbidities in very-low-birth-weight infants.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Korea.
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study aimed to evaluate vitamin D status at birth in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs: <1,500 g) and to determine the association between vitamin D level and respiratory morbidity.

METHODS:

A retrospective study was conducted at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital between November 2013 and November 2017. We collected blood samples and data on respiratory morbidity from 230 VLBWIs on the first day of life. Patients who were transferred to other hospitals (n=19), died before 36 weeks of gestational age (n=18), or whose blood samples were not collected immediately after birth (n=5) were excluded. Finally, 188 patients were enrolled. VLBWIs with different vitamin D levels were compared with respect to demographic features, maternal diseases, respiratory morbidities, and other neonatal diseases.

RESULTS:

The mean serum vitamin D level, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), was 13.4± 9.3 ng/mL. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was 79.8%, and 44.1% of preterm infants had severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL). Logistic analysis shows that a low serum 25(OH)D level (<20 ng/mL) was a risk factor for respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 4.32; P=0.010) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR, 4.11; P=0.035).

CONCLUSION:

The results showed that 79.8% of preterm infants in this study had vitamin D deficiency at birth. Low vitamin D status was associated with respiratory morbidity, but the exact mechanism was unknown. Additional studies on the association between vitamin D level and neonatal morbidity are required.

KEYWORDS:

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; Newborn respiratory distress syndrome; Very low birth weight infants; Vitamin D deficiency

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