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PLoS One. 2018 Oct 25;13(10):e0206231. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206231. eCollection 2018.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) PCR-negative conversion predicts prognosis of HIV-negative patients with PCP and acute respiratory failure.

Author information

1
Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is often fatal in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-negative patients and typically presents with respiratory insufficiency. Predicting treatment failure is challenging. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors and examine PCP polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative conversion in non-HIV PCP patients with respiratory failure.

METHOD:

We retrospectively enrolled 81 non-HIV patients diagnosed with and treated for PCP with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit at a tertiary hospital over a 3-year period. PCP was diagnosed via nested PCR-mediated detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in induced sputum samples, endotracheal aspirates, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. PCP PCR was performed weekly to check for negative conversion.

RESULTS:

The overall survival rate was 35.8%. Seventy-four patients (91.3%) required mechanical ventilation, and 6 (7.4%) required high-flow nasal oxygen treatment. The PCP PCR-negative conversion rate was 70.5% (survivors, 97%; non-survivors, 63.5%); the median time to conversion was 10 (7.0-14.0) days. On univariate analysis, the APACHE II score (p < 0.001), renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (p = 0.04), PCP PCR-negative conversion (p = 0.003), and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (first 24 hours) (p < 0.001) significantly correlated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, PCP PCR-negative conversion (hazard ratio, 0.433; 95% confidence interval, 0.203-0.928; p = 0.031) and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (first 24 hours) (hazard ratio, 0.988; 95% confidence interval, 0.983-0.993; p < 0.001) independently predicted prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Determination of PCP PCR-negative conversion and PaO2/FiO2 ratios may help physicians predict treatment failure and mortality in non-HIV PCP patients with respiratory failure.

PMID:
30359436
PMCID:
PMC6201940
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0206231
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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