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Front Med (Lausanne). 2018 Oct 9;5:283. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2018.00283. eCollection 2018.

The Development of Immunotherapy Strategies for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.

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Novo Nordisk (Denmark), Copenhagen, Denmark.


Optimized insulin therapies, increased use of continuous glucose monitoring/insulin pumps and most importantly the arrival of reliable closed loop systems will undeniably lead to a reduction in the burden of complications that arise from type 1 diabetes. However, insulin therapy will only ever treat the symptoms of the disease and will not alter the underlying pathology. The aim of immunotherapy treatment is to modulate the immune system, a strategy that has been successful in autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, the success rate of immunotherapy treatment in type 1 diabetes has been low. There are several distinct stages of T1D development. In this review, we summarize the most important immunotherapeutic approaches tested thus far and focus on the characteristic features and unmet need within the different stages of the disease.


immunotherapy of cancer; insulin; tolerance; trials; type 1 diabets

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