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Circ Heart Fail. 2018 Aug;11(8):e005036. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.118.005036.

IL-1 Blockade in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

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Division of Cardiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Pauley Heart Center, Richmond (B.W.V.T., C.R.T., J.C., S.C., D.K., M.G.D.B., H.B., G.W., M.V., C.O.-E., N.A.A., D.D., A.A.).
Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (B.W.V.T., L.B., G.W., D.D.).
Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy (G.B.-Z.).
Department of AngioCardioNeurology, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy (G.B.-Z.).
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (R.A.).


Background Enhanced inflammation may lead to exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The aim of the current study was to determine whether IL (interleukin)-1 blockade with anakinra improved cardiorespiratory fitness in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Methods and Results Thirty-one patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and CRP (C-reactive protein) >2 mg/L were randomized to anakinra (100 mg subcutaneously daily, N=21) or placebo (N=10) for 12 weeks. We measured peak oxygen consumption (Vo2), ventilatory efficiency (VE/Vco2 slope), and high-sensitivity CRP and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Twenty-eight patients completed ≥2 visits, 18 women (64%), 27 (96%) obese. There were no differences in peak Vo2 or VE/Vco2 slope between groups at baseline. Peak Vo2 was not changed after 12 weeks of anakinra (from 13.6 [11.8-18.0] to 14.2 [11.2-18.5] mL·kg-1·min-1, P=0.89), or placebo (14.9 [11.7-17.2] to 15.0 [13.8-16.9] mL·kg-1·min-1, P=0.40), without significant between-group differences in changes at 12 weeks (-0.4 [95% CI, -2.2 to +1.4], P=0.64). VE/Vco2 slope was also unchanged with anakinra (from 28.3 [27.2-33.0] to 30.5 [26.3-32.8], P=0.97) or placebo (from 31.6 [27.3-36.9] to 31.2 [27.8-33.4], P=0.78), without significant between-group differences in changes at 12 weeks (+1.2 [95% CI, -1.8 to +4.3], P=0.97). Within the anakinra-treated patients, high-sensitivity CRP and NT-proBNP levels were lower at 4 weeks compared with baseline ( P=0.026 and P=0.022 versus placebo [between-group analysis], respectively). Conclusions Treatment with anakinra for 12 weeks failed to improve peak Vo2 and VE/Vco2 slope in a group of obese heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. The favorable trends in high-sensitivity CRP and NT-proBNP with anakinra deserve exploration in future studies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: . Unique identifier: NCT02173548.


cardiorespiratory fitness; exercise test; heart failure; inflammation; interleukin-1; natriuretic peptides; oxygen consumption

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