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Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2018 Sep 27;5(10):1146-1153. doi: 10.1002/acn3.616. eCollection 2018 Oct.

Urban air quality and associations with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
Division of Child Neurology Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia Pennsylvania.
2
University of California San Francisco San Francisco California.
3
University of Utah Salt Lake City Utah.
4
Stony Brook University Stony Brook New York.
5
Buffalo General Hospital State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo New York.
6
Loma Linda University Children's Hospital Loma Linda California.
7
Mayo Clinic Rochester Minnesota.
8
University of Alabama Tuscaloosa Alabama.
9
New York University Medical Center New York New York.
10
Boston Children's Pediatric MS Center Boston Massachusetts.
11
Cleveland Clinic Cleveland Ohio.
12
Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis Missouri.
13
Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston Massachusetts.
14
Denver Children's Hospital Denver Colorado.
15
Texas Children's Hospital Houston Texas.
16
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas Texas.
17
Children's National Medical Center Washington District of Columbia.
18
Lurie Children's Hospital Chicago Illinois.

Abstract

Background:

We previously identified air quality as a risk factor of interest for pediatric multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the association between the six criteria air pollutants and pediatric MS as well as identify specific areas of toxic release using data from the Toxic Release Inventory.

Methods:

Pediatric MS cases (N = 290) and healthy controls (N = 442) were included as part of an ongoing case-control study. We used the National Emissions Inventory system to estimate particulate exposure by county of residence for each participant. Proximity to Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) sites was also assessed using ArcGIS mapping tools. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) classified counties at risk to exposure of environmental toxic releases.

Results:

Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and lead air emissions were associated with increased odds for pediatric MS (P < 0.01) for those residing within 20 miles of an MS center. Most study participants (75%) resided within 5 miles of at least one TRI site; however, the mean total pounds of stack air releases was higher for sites near MS cases (81,000 tons) compared to those near healthy controls (35,000 tons, P = 0.002). Average RSEI scores did not differ significantly between cases and controls.

Conclusion:

Out of several air pollutants examined, we show that fine particulate matter and three other criteria pollutants (SO 2, CO, and lead) were statistically associated with higher odds for pediatric MS.

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