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Int J Food Microbiol. 2019 Feb 2;290:193-204. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.10.002. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Development of air-blast dried non-Saccharomyces yeast starter for improving quality of Korean persimmon wine and apple cider.

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School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea; Institute of Fermentation Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea. Electronic address:


A total of 512 yeasts, including 422 non-Saccharomyces yeasts, were isolated from various fruits including apple, aronia, Muscat Bailey A grapes, and persimmon. These were used to prepare persimmon wine and apple cider starters that produced high levels of aromatic compounds, which contribute to high-quality fermented products. Environmental tolerance testing with 20% glucose and 8% EtOH, alongside a sniffing test, led to the selection of Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Synonym Pichia anomala) SJ20, Meyerozyma caribbica (Synonym Pichia caribbica) YP1, Pichia kluyveri CD34, Hanseniaspora uvarum SJ69 (for persimmon wine), W. anomalus CS7-16 (for apple cider), and Starmerella bacillaris (Synonym Candida zemplinina) CD80 (for both wines) as wine starters. These strains had high environmental stress tolerance and the highest sniffing test scores. Persimmon wine and apple cider were fermented using these strains in single- or mixed-culture with S. cerevisiae W-3 to determine the improved effect on wine aroma. In accordance with the results of volatile ester compounds and sensory evaluation, W. anomalus SJ20, H. uvarum SJ69, and W. anomalus CS7-16 had an excellent potential as persimmon wine and apple cider starters. Moreover, other strains also showed a good potential for a distinctive persimmon wine and apple cider because of the different compositions of the various volatile ester compounds. Six types of sugars (fructose, glucose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose, sucrose, and trehalose), four types of rehydration solutions (distilled water, 1× phosphate buffered saline, 0.85% NaCl, and 1% peptone water), and two types of antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid and glutathione) were examined to improve the survival rate of air-blast dried non-Saccharomyces yeast cells. Optimal sugar and rehydration conditions for each strain were validated, and scanning electron microscopy showed that each cell was surrounded by protectants, including sugar, skim milk, and lactomil. Storability assessment of air-blast dried yeast cells maintained at 4 °C for two months indicated that at least one condition in each strain had a higher survival rate than the control, regardless of the concentration or type of antioxidant treatment, except for M. caribbica YP1. These results suggest that antioxidant treatment contributes to maintaining the viability of air-blast dried cells in hostile environments.


Air-blast drying; Non-Saccharomyces; Storability; Viability; Volatile ester compounds; Yeast starter

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