Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Health Psychol. 2018 Dec;37(12):1102-1106. doi: 10.1037/hea0000686. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Hostility, forgiveness, and cognitive impairment over 10 years in a national sample of American adults.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Luther College.
2
Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.
3
Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, University of California, Los Angeles.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We examined the extent to which self-forgiveness and forgiveness of others moderated the association of hostility with changes in cognitive impairment over 10 years in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States.

METHOD:

Participants were 1,084 respondents to the Americans' Changing Lives survey, a longitudinal study of American adults. Hostility, self-forgiveness, forgiveness of others, and cognitive impairment were measured at baseline, and cognitive impairment was assessed again at follow-up. Moderated multiple regression analyses tested whether self-forgiveness and forgiveness of others moderated the association of hostility with changes in cognitive impairment over time, controlling for baseline cognitive impairment and relevant sociodemographic and clinical factors.

RESULTS:

As hypothesized, greater hostility levels at baseline predicted more cognitive impairment 10 years later, β = .08, p < .01. In addition, self-forgiveness at baseline moderated the association between baseline hostility and cognitive impairment at follow-up, β = -.07, p < .01. Decomposing this interaction revealed that hostility significantly predicted increased cognitive impairment at follow-up for individuals with low, β = .15, p < .001, and average, β = .08, p = .001, levels of self-forgiveness but not for persons with high levels of self-forgiveness, β = .03, p = .34. In contrast, forgiveness of others was not a significant moderator.

CONCLUSIONS:

Greater hostility is associated with the development of more cognitive impairment over 10 years, and being more self-forgiving appears to mitigate these hostility-related effects on cognition. Enhancing self-forgiveness may thus represent one possible strategy for promoting cognitive resilience in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID:
30346198
PMCID:
PMC6263797
[Available on 2019-12-01]
DOI:
10.1037/hea0000686
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Psychological Association
Loading ...
Support Center